Metabolic acidosis also leads to nephrocalcinosis because it causes proximal tubular reabsorption of citrate which results in hypocitraturia
that promotes calcium phosphate precipitation.
A defect in renal acid excretion results in hypocitraturia
, an important risk factor for calcium nephrolithiasis.
Diet-induced metabolic acidosis promotes low urine pH, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia
, predisposing to uric acid and calcium kidney stone formation.
Females were found to have hypocitraturia
and low volumes, while males more commonly had hyperoxaluria and hypernatriuria.
Several biochemical abnormalities, including increased urine output, hyperoxaluria, hypomagnesiuria, hyperuricosuria, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia
, have been observed in the urine of lithic animals .
Major risk factors for stone formation include age, gender, ethnicity, family history, history of stones, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia
and urinary pH disorders.
Gender, age in years, and age grouping were demographic while presence of hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hypocitraturia
were research variables.
is the main urinary risk factor of urolithiasis in Pakistan.
is one of the major risk factors for nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.
Metabolic defect leading to stone formation in HSK are hypovolemia, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia
In childhood, nephrolithiasis is associated with metabolic disorders including hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia
and cystinuria (4,5,6).
The formation of these stones is directly related to urine supersaturation with calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, along with hypocitraturia