One of the patients had hypocitraturia
with a history of nephrolithiasis.
Another causes are metabolic factors (hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hypocitraturia
) which are common in HSK patients and the coexistence of HSK with medullary sponge kidney (a known cause of high-risk stone disease).
Keywords: Distal renal tubular acidosis, Hypercalciuria, Hypocitraturia
, Metabolic workup, Urolithiasis.
Many factors contribute to CaOx stone formation such as hypercalciuria (resorptive, renal leak, absorptive, and metabolic diseases), hyperuricosuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia
, hypomagnesuria, and hypercystinuria .
A defect in renal acid excretion results in hypocitraturia
, an important risk factor for calcium nephrolithiasis.
"Diet-induced metabolic acidosis promotes low urine pH, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia
, predisposing to uric acid and calcium kidney stone formation."
Females were found to have hypocitraturia
and low volumes, while males more commonly had hyperoxaluria and hypernatriuria.
Several biochemical abnormalities, including increased urine output, hyperoxaluria, hypomagnesiuria, hyperuricosuria, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia
, have been observed in the urine of lithic animals .
Major risk factors for stone formation include age, gender, ethnicity, family history, history of stones, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia
and urinary pH disorders.12,13 It is thought that inappropriate dietary habits, increase in prevalence of overweight people and changes in lifestyle are responsible for the increase in kidney stone prevalence in the last 2-3 decades.2,9 Epidemiological studies have shown that DM, metabolic syndrome and obesity increase the risk of kidney stone disease.7,14
Gender, age in years, and age grouping were demographic while presence of hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hypocitraturia
were research variables.
Drinks acidified with Phosphoric acid increases the risk by 15% caffeine tea intake in excessive amounts increases the risk of stones.9 Hypocitraturia
is the main urinary risk factor of urolithiasis in Pakistan.
is one of the major risk factors for nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.