The possible pathogenic mechanisms include occult blood loss secondary to chronic erosive gastritis, decreased iron absorption secondary to atrophy-associated gastric hypochlorhydria
, and increased iron uptake and utilization by H.
Blood levels of calcium low enough to cause secondary hyperparathyroidism are typically due to not getting enough daily calcium, vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, low levels of stomach acid (hypochlorhydria
, relatively common after age 50), malabsorption of calcium (and other minerals, most often caused by "hidden" gluten sensitivity), or gastric bypass surgery.
from short-term omeprazole treatment does not inhibit intestinal absorption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium or zinc from food in humans.
(6) Carriers of IL-1RN 2/*2 and IL-1B-511 T have been reported to be at increased risk of hypochlorhydria
and gastric cancer.
as a result of PPI therapy may cause calcium malabsorption, resulting in a higher risk of bone fractures.
Helicobacterpylori in cathartic stools of subjects with and without cimetidine-induced hypochlorhydria
. J Med Microbiol.
Atrophic body gastritis (ABG), (4) a disorder that increases the risk for gastric cancer (1), is characterized by chronic inflammation of oxyntic mucosa that leads to progressive atrophy of the oxyntic glands with consequent hypochlorhydria
pylori culture and subsequently experienced severe acute gastritis with hypochlorhydria
. This condition was linked to H.
CagA+ and vacA+ virulent strains increase the chance of hypochlorhydria
and protect against the development of GERD.
, gluten intolerance, allergic sinusitis, headache, and toothache have all significantly benefited with the use of the proteolytic enzyme papain.
(4) Similar mechanisms of bacterial survival and selection may be at play in the case of C septicum infection under conditions of hypochlorhydria
. It can be postulated that the increased pH resulting from chronic PPI therapy may increase the virulence and survival of C septicum within the gastrointestinal tract, thereby increasing risk of dissemination and gas gangrene.
Advanced HIV disease is associated with hypochlorhydria
, and peptic ulceration is unusual in this setting.