Anomalous cognition in hypnagogic state
with OBE induction: An experimental study.
Free-response GESP performance during an experimental hypnagogic state
induced by visual and acoustic ganzfeld techniques: A replication and extension.
As Hishikawa (1976) pointed out, visual/auditory hallucinations are common in the hypnagogic state
, even in cases in which a person does not experience an OBE.
Various anomalous experiences have been reported just as people are falling asleep (hypnagogic state
) or awakening from sleep (hypnopompic state).
Sleep-paralysis is also described, and Wiseman notes the similarity between accounts of experiences while in the hypnagogic state
and some of the phenomena that are interpreted as being due to ghosts, for example, hearing footsteps.
But what is just as interesting, as Murphy notes, is the importance Miles and Ramsden gave to the hypnagogic state
. They regarded this state as a psi-conducive state because it represents a borderline between unconscious and conscious processes (these experiments are reviewed in Parker, 2005).
Some studies (Mavromatis, 1987; Sherwood, 1999) have demonstrated that apparitions often occur in states of consciousness in which mental images are experienced as particularly lifelike and "real"-for example, the hypnagogic state
(falling asleep) and hypnopompic state (waking up).
Our experiment was an attempt to enhance the hit score in the hypnagogic state
by eliminating all potential flaws and considering some new moderators not examined before.
Most research, both experimental and survey-based, seems to have focused on the hypnagogic state
(the period between wakefulness and sleep, i.e., just as a person is falling asleep).
ABSTRACT: The ganzfeld setting has often been used to induce experimentally the hypnagogic state
, similar to that which occurs at sleep onset.
(5.) As of writing this, an EEG study aimed at electrophysiological correlates of the ganzfeld and hypnagogic state
has been actually started in the Laboratory of Psychophysiology of the IGPP in Freiburg.
Examples of this are Krippner et al.'s (1971) use of multisensory targets in dream studies, Casler's (1976) study of monetary incentives and hypnosis, Palmer's (1978a) analyses of his own studies on the relationship between OBEs and ESP in terms of induction procedure and a hypnagogic state
scale, and Sargent's (1978) consideration of anxiety, extroversion, and feedback in hypnosis.