hypertonic solution


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Related to hypertonic solution: Hypotonic solution

solution

 [so-loo´shun]
1. a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dispersed molecularly in a sufficient quantity of dissolving medium (solvent).
2. in pharmacology, a liquid preparation of one or more soluble chemical substances, which are usually dissolved in water. For names of specific solutions, see under the name.
3. the process of dissolving or disrupting.
4. a loosening or separation.

Preparation of Solutions. Formula for preparing solutions from a pure drug:


For example, to prepare 2000 mL of a 2 per cent solution from boric acid crystals, the proportion would be

Formula for preparing solutions from stock solutions:

For example, to prepare 1000 mL of a 2 per cent solution from a 4 per cent stock solution, the proportion would be
aqueous solution one in which water is used as the solvent.
BCG solution an aqueous suspension of bacille Calmette-Guérin for instillation into the bladder to activate the immune system in treatment of superficial bladder cancers. It reduces the risk of a subsequent bladder cancer developing, although the exact mechanism of action is unknown.
buffer solution one that resists appreciable change in its hydrogen ion concentration (pH) when acid or alkali is added to it.
colloid solution (colloidal solution) imprecise term for colloid (def. 3).
hyperbaric solution one having a greater specific gravity than a standard of reference.
hypertonic solution one having an osmotic pressure greater than that of a standard of reference.
hypobaric solution one having a specific gravity less than that of a standard of reference.
hypotonic solution one having an osmotic pressure less than that of a standard of reference.
isobaric solution a solution having the same specific gravity as a standard of reference.
isotonic solution one having an osmotic pressure the same as that of a standard of reference.
molar solution a solution in which each liter contains 1 mole of the dissolved substance; designated 1 M. The concentration of other solutions may be expressed in relation to that of molar solutions as tenth-molar (0.1 M), etc.
normal solution a solution in which each liter contains 1 equivalent weight of the dissolved substance; designated 1 N.
ophthalmic solution a sterile solution, free from foreign particles, for instillation into the eye.
saturated solution one in which the solvent has taken up all of the dissolved substance that it can hold in solution.
sclerosing solution one containing an irritant substance (sclerosing agent) that will cause obliteration of a space, as in sclerotherapy.
standard solution one that contains in each liter a definitely stated amount of reagent; usually expressed in terms of normality (equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution) or molarity (moles of solute per liter of solution).
supersaturated solution an unstable solution containing more of the solute than it can permanently hold.
volumetric solution one that contains a specific quantity of solvent per stated unit of volume.

hypertonic solution

A solution having a greater osmotic pressure than that of cells or body fluids; a solution that draws water out of cells, thus inducing plasmolysis.
See also: solution

solution, hypertonic 

A solution with an osmotic pressure greater than that of an isotonic solution. Hypertonic ophthalmic solutions cause some stinging when instilled. Examples: sodium chloride 5%: when applied to an oedematous cornea this solution reduces oedema by drawing water from it; sulfacetamide sodium 30%; glycerol (or glycerin), at a dose of 1-1.5 g/kg body weight given as a solution with water or other liquid, which draws water from the eye into the blood and thereby reduces the intraocular pressure. Syn. hyperosmotic agent. See hyperosmotic agent; osmotic pressure; physiological saline.
hypotonic s. A solution with an osmotic pressure lower than that of an isotonic solution. Hypotonic ophthalmic solutions generally cause less irritation than hypertonic ones. See osmotic pressure.
isotonic s. A solution with an osmotic pressure equal to that on the other side of a semipermeable membrane. Example: sodium chloride 0.9% is considered to be approximately isotonic with the tears. See osmotic pressure; physio-logical saline.

solution

1. a liquid preparation of one or more soluble chemical substances usually dissolved in water.
2. the process of dissolving or disrupting.

aqueous solution
one in which water is used as the solvent.
buffer solution
one that resists appreciable change in its hydrogen ion concentration (pH) when acid or alkali is added to it.
colloid solution, colloidal solution
a preparation consisting of minute particles of matter suspended in a solvent.
hyperbaric solution
one having a greater specific gravity than a standard of reference.
hypertonic solution
one having an osmotic pressure greater than that of a standard of reference.
hypobaric solution
one having a specific gravity less than that of a standard of reference.
hypotonic solution
one having an osmotic pressure less than that of a standard of reference.
iodine solution
a transparent, reddish brown liquid, each 100 ml of which contains 1.8 to 2.2 g of iodine and 2.1 to 2.6 g of sodium iodide; a local anti-infective.
iodine solution (strong)
Lugol's solution.
isobaric solution
a solution having the same specific gravity as a standard of reference.
isotonic solution
one having an osmotic pressure the same as that of a standard of reference.
molar solution
a solution each liter of which contains 1 mole of the dissolved substance; designated 1 M. The concentration of other solutions may be expressed in relation to that of molar solutions as tenth-molar (0.1 M), etc.
normal solution
a solution each liter of which contains 1 chemical equivalent of the dissolved substance; designated 1 N.
ophthalmic solution
a sterile solution, free from foreign particles, for instillation into the eye.
physiological saline solution, physiological salt solution, physiological sodium chloride solution
an aqueous solution of sodium chloride and other components, having an osmotic pressure identical to that of blood serum.
priming solution
the fluid used to fill tubing and the reservoir of a cardiac bypass unit before use.
saline solution
a solution of sodium chloride, or common salt, in purified water.
saturated solution
a solution in which the solvent has taken up all of the dissolved substance that it can hold in solution.
sclerosing solution
one containing an irritant substance that will cause obliteration of a space, such as the lumen of a varicose vein or the cavity of a hernial sac.
standard solution
one containing a fixed amount of solute.
supersaturated solution
one containing a greater quantity of the solute than the solvent can hold in solution under ordinary conditions.
volumetric solution
one that contains a specific quantity of solvent per stated unit of volume.
References in periodicals archive ?
Hypertonic solutions would not be a good choice because patients with dehydration, excessive diaphoresis, and inadequate amounts of fluid intake (all common following intense activities in hot conditions) are likely to be in a hypertonic state.
RIHS-IB = Intraruminal infusion of hypertonic solution and insertion of a balloon.
Osmotic shock with hypertonic solution was used to lyse the cells within tissues [9].
Experiment 2--The effect of intraruminal infusion of hypertonic solution and intravenous infusion of artificial mixed saliva on dry forage intake in large-type goats during sham feeding : Similar to experiment 1, the animals were divided into two groups (A and B).
Surgical treatment include emptying the cyst removing scolexes destroying any alive scolexes with hypertonic solutions and filling the void of cyst with omentoplasty or capitonage.
Conversely, the use of hypertonic solutions (high in salt) was a potent inhibitor of such inflammatory signals at molecular level," Dr Pelegrin said.
Life-threatening symptoms of hypotonic encephalopathy including hallucinations, psychomotor agitation, convulsions, unconsciousness and coma are an indication for emergent treatment with intravenous hypertonic solutions such as 3% saline or mannitol.
However, avoiding the use of hypertonic solutions and preventing situations that require the maximal ultrafiltration effect of hypertonic solutions, is one step in limiting unwanted weight gain in the PD patient (Blake & Diaz-Buxo, 2001).
Renal lesions following administration of hypertonic solutions of sucrose.