The authors refer to their previous data showing lower levels of creativity in unipolar depression and a higher association between artistic creativity, eminence and bipolar type II disorder with cyclothymic or hyperthymic
temperament may protect against suicidal ideation.
But MP and DP patients scored significantly higher on cyclothymic and hyperthymic
subscales than did UP patients.
In one of the more elaborate models, Akiskal and Pinto (1999) described a bipolar spectrum that incorporates seven subtypes: bipolar I (classic mania); bipolar I 1/2 (depression with persistent hypomania); bipolar II (depression interspersed with hypomania); bipolar II 1/2 (depression with briefer periods of hypomania); bipolar III (antidepressant-induced hypomania); bipolar III 1/2 (bipolarity associated with substance misuse); and bipolar IV (depression superimposed on a hyperthymic
In cases of affective disorders with rapid mood swings, the concept of bipolar spectrum disorders has also been put forward as an inclusive diagnostic choice (5), which expands particularly with regard to the clinical variants of the bipolar II disorder Clinicians and researchers specializing in the subject emphasize the importance of the underlying temperaments as the dispositional dimension and argue that it will be adequate to explain the complicated clinical scenario by cyclothymic and hyperthymic
temperaments superimposed by major depression episodes, anxiety-sensitive conditions, dysregulated impulse control and attention, and alcohol and substance abuse and/or bulimic episodes.
While lesser known, the author offers that hyperthymic
(high extroversion, sociability, and energy) personality disorder is also characteristic of successful crisis leaders.
Other indicators are history of antidepressant induced mania or hypomania, hyperthymic
personality (traits such as optimism, increased energy, reduced need for sleep, extroversion, promiscuity and overconfidence) prior to the onset of depression, early age onset, and atypical symptoms of depression (e.
In another lecture, IDRAAC researcher Mariana Salamoun explained various troubled temperaments - such as the hyperthymic
, depressed, agitated-irritable, worried, and moody types - and emphasized that most Lebanese are characterized by some combination of these types in varying degrees.
Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A): It was developed by Akiskal (22) and it is a 100-item self-report measure of affective temperament with depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable, and anxious subscales.
TEMPS-A scores in patient and control groups were analyzed by an independent samples t-test for depressive, hyperthymic, cyclothymic and irritable temperament profiles, whereas anxious temperament scores were compared by the Mann-Whitney U-test since they were not normally distributed.
Additional indications that depression is bipolar include hyperthymic
temperament, family history of psychotic depression or bipolar disorder, multiple failed antidepressant courses, and new or worsened insomnia following initiation of antidepressant therapy.