hypertensive retinopathy


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retinopathy

 [ret″ĭ-nop´ah-the]
any noninflammatory disease of the retina.
central serous retinopathy a usually self-limiting condition marked by acute localized detachment of the neural retina or retinal pigment epithelium in the region of the macula, with hypermetropia.
circinate retinopathy a condition marked by a circle of white spots enclosing the macular area, leading to complete foveal blindness.
diabetic retinopathy retinal manifestations of diabetes mellitus, including microaneurysms and punctate exudates. There are two major forms of diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative and proliferative. The nonproliferative form is characterized by dilation of the retinal veins and microaneurysms which may leak blood cells and/or plasma, causing internal hemorrhaging or edema in the retina. Edema in peripheral areas of the retina goes unnoticed by the patient and may go untreated, whereas edema occurring in the central retina (macula) causes noticeably decreased vision and is the primary cause of vision loss in nonproliferative disease. (See Atlas 4, Part D.) Treatment by local laser photocoagulation is aimed at sealing shut the breaks in the blood vessels and preventing additional leakage of fluid into the area. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential in this disease to enhance a final visual outcome of stabilization and prevention of further loss of vision.



In proliferative diabetic retinopathy new blood vessels form near the optic disk, break through the inner membranous lining, and grow on the vitreous chamber and elsewhere in the retina and may rupture, causing gross vitreous hemorrhage. Additionally, fibrous tissue is generated secondary to the new blood vessel formation, and both the fibrous tissue and the new blood vessels become firmly attached to the posterior vitreous face. As the vitreous humor moves, the blood vessels and fibrous tissue cause tractional pulling on the retina and may result in separation or detachment of areas of retina. Panretinal laser photocoagulation is the definitive therapy. The study of early treatment for diabetic retinopathy proved the efficacy of this procedure in causing regression of the new blood vessels and prevention of vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachments, the two major causes of vision loss from this form of the disease.
exudative retinopathy a condition marked by masses of white or yellowish exudate in the posterior part of the fundus oculi, with deposits of cholestrin and blood debris from retinal hemorrhage, and leading to destruction of the macula and blindness.
hemorrhagic retinopathy retinopathy marked by profuse hemorrhaging in the retina, occurring in diabetes, occlusion of the central vein, and hypertension.
hypertensive retinopathy that associated with essential hypertension; changes may include irregular narrowing of the retinal arterioles, hemorrhages in the nerve fiber layers and the outer plexiform layer, exudates and cotton-wool patches, arteriosclerotic changes, and, in malignant hypertension, papilledema. (See also Atlas 4, Part C.)
leukemic retinopathy a condition occurring in leukemia, with paleness of the fundus resulting from infiltration of the retina and choroid with leukocytes, and swelling of the disk with blurring of its margin.
retinopathy of prematurity a disease of the developing retinal vasculature of the premature newborn. The incidence correlates with degree of prematurity; that is, the more premature the infant is, the greater the possibility of this condition occurring. The cause is vasoconstriction of retinal capillaries due to the presence of very high concentrations of oxygen in these blood vessels, which produces an overgrowth of retinal blood vessels. The vascular proliferation and exudation of blood and serum detaches the retina and produces scarring and inevitable blindness. To prevent retinopathy of prematurity it is recommended that oxygen be administered to premature newborns in as low a concentration and for as short a time as feasible. Careful monitoring of the newborn and evaluation of oxygen tension level are essential because no totally safe dosage of oxygen that will prevent the retinal changes has been found. Called also retrolental fibroplasia.
proliferative retinopathy the proliferative type of diabetic retinopathy.

hy·per·ten·sive ret·i·nop·a·thy

a retinal condition occurring in accelerated vascular hypertension, marked by arteriolar constriction, flame-shaped hemorrhages, cotton-wool patches, star-figure edema at the macula, and papilledema.

hypertensive retinopathy

n.
A retinal condition occurring in accelerated hypertension and characterized by arteriolar constriction, flame-shaped hemorrhages, cotton-wool patches, progressive severity of star-shaped edematous spot at the macula, and papilledema.

hypertensive retinopathy

Ophthalmology The retinal changes induced by HTN, which includes 'copper wire' and 'silver wire' changes of chronic HTN, or retinal and disc edema following abrupt ↑ in systemic BP–eg, malignant HTN

hy·per·ten·sive ret·i·nop·a·thy

(hī'pĕr-ten'siv ret'i-nop'ă-thē)
A retinal condition occurring in accelerated vascular hypertension, marked by arteriolar constriction, flame-shaped hemorrhages, cotton-wool patches, star-figure edema at the macula, and papilledema.

hypertensive retinopathy

Damage to the RETINA as a result of bleeding from small retinal blood vessels and an inadequate retinal blood supply from arterial disease. There are widespread haemorrhages and signs of local retinal death with sometimes severe visual loss. Hypertensive retinopathy is a sign of dangerously high blood pressure calling for urgent treatment. Untreated, the mortality is high.
References in periodicals archive ?
Researchers found from population-based studies that diabetic retinopathy signs like microaneurysm and hard exudates and the hypertensive retinopathy signs like arteriovenous nicking and focal retinal arteriolar narrowing were also associated with the acute stroke and stroke mortality even if the people were free from other stroke risk factors [19, 48].
Stage 1 hypertensive retinopathy was detected in 90 (40.4%) patients, stage 2 in 81 (36.3%), stage 3 in 50 (22.4%), and stage 4 in only 2 (0.9%) patients.
Diabetic retinopathy and hypertensive retinopathy may affect the retinal vasculature network [17].
Of a subset of 2,907 participants with hypertension who were part of the prospective population-based study, 1,354 had mild hypertensive retinopathy, 146 had moderate hypertensive retinopathy, and 1 had severe hypertensive retinopathy; 165 developed incident stroke, including 146 with cerebral infarction and 15 with hemorrhagic stroke, during a mean of 13 years of follow-up.
Common causes include DR, hypertensive retinopathy, Coats disease, telangiectasias and radiation retinopathy.
Number of Patients by Ocular Pathology Ocular Pathology Number of Patient (%) Glaucoma 97 (33.4%) Cataract 73 (25.3%) Diabetic Macular Degeneration 45 (15.6%) Age Related Macular Degeneration 41 (14.2%) Atherosclerosis 15 (5.2%) Hypertensive Retinopathy 12 (4.2%) Presbyopia 6 (2.1%) Retinal Tear 6 (2.1%) Drusen of optic nerve 5 (1.7%) Ocular Hypertension 5 (1.7%) Macular edema 4 (1.3%) Medullated Nerve Fiber 3 (1.0%) Amblyopia 3 (1.0%) Papilledema 3 (1.0%) Posterior Vitreous Detachment 3 (1.0%) ** [[less than or equal to] 1.0% of total patient pool] Retinitis Pigmentosa, Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca.
She also had mild non proliferative diabetic retinopathy and grade III hypertensive retinopathy. Serum creatinine was 1.2 mg/dl.
Additionally, the physiologic consequences of sustained high blood pressure contribute to the development of congestive heart failure, hypertensive retinopathy, and hypertensive kidney disease.
Examination revealed a blood pressure of 160/85 mmHg, grade 1 hypertensive retinopathy and features of congestive cardiac failure (CCF), but mild pulmonary oedema.
Out of 107 hyperuricaemic patients of hypertensive group 39% patients developed hypertensive retinopathy while only 24% patients developed hypertensive retinopathy of normouricaemia group.
The condition has many causes, from central nervous system disease to inflammation; however, "As a veterinary ophthalmologist, I would say the most common cause of sudden blindness that I see among cats who appeared otherwise normal prior to the vision loss is a condition called hypertensive retinopathy," says Eric C.
(37) On examination the three most common ocular findings are hypertensive retinopathy, serous retinal detachment, and cortical blindness.

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