hypertensive encephalopathy


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encephalopathy

 [en-sef″ah-lop´ah-the]
any degenerative disease of the brain.
AIDS encephalopathy HIV encephalopathy.
anoxic encephalopathy hypoxic encephalopathy.
biliary encephalopathy (bilirubin encephalopathy) kernicterus.
bovine spongiform encephalopathy a prion disease of adult cattle in the British Isles with neurologic symptoms. It is transmitted by feed containing protein in the form of meat and bone meal derived from infected animals. The etiologic agent is also the cause of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Called also mad cow disease.
boxer's encephalopathy (boxer's traumatic encephalopathy) a syndrome due to cumulative head blows absorbed in the boxing ring, characterized by slowing of mental function, occasional bouts of confusion, and scattered memory loss. It may progress to the more serious boxer's dementia. See also postconcussional syndrome.
dialysis encephalopathy a degenerative disease of the brain associated with longterm use of hemodialysis, marked by speech disorders and constant myoclonic jerks, progressing to global dementia.
hepatic encephalopathy a condition, usually occurring secondary to advanced liver disease, marked by disturbances of consciousness that may progress to deep coma (hepatic coma), psychiatric changes of varying degree, flapping tremor, and fetor hepaticus.
HIV encephalopathy (HIV-related encephalopathy) a progressive primary encephalopathy caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus type I, manifested by a variety of cognitive, motor, and behavioral abnormalities. Called also AIDS encephalopathy.
hypernatremic encephalopathy a severe hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by the hyperosmolarity accompanying hypernatremia and dehydration.
hypertensive encephalopathy a complex of cerebral phenomena such as headache, convulsions, and coma that occur in the course of malignant hypertension.
hypoxic encephalopathy encephalopathy caused by hypoxia from either decreased rate of blood flow or decreased oxygen content of arterial blood; mild cases cause temporary intellectual, visual, and motor disturbances, and severe cases can cause permanent brain damage within five minutes. Called also anoxic encephalopathy.
lead encephalopathy brain disease caused by lead poisoning.
mitochondrial encephalopathy encephalopathy associated with mitochondrial abnormalities, such as melas syndrome and merrf syndrome.
portal-systemic encephalopathy (portasystemic encephalopathy) hepatic encephalopathy.
progressive subcortical encephalopathy Schilder's disease.
subacute spongiform encephalopathy (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) prion disease.
traumatic encephalopathy
Wernicke's encephalopathy a neurological disorder characterized by confusion, apathy, drowsiness, ataxia of gait, nystagmus, and ophthalmoplegia; it is due to thiamine deficiency, usually from chronic alcohol abuse. It is almost invariably accompanied by or followed by korsakoff's syndrome and frequently accompanied by other nutritional polyneuropathies. See also wernicke-korsakoff syndrome.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

hy·per·ten·sive en·ceph·a·lop·a·thy

a metabolic encephalopathy caused by diffuse cerebral edema; follows an abrupt elevation of blood pressure in a long-term hypertensive patient.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

hypertensive encephalopathy

The abrupt onset of headache and altered mental status that may occur with sudden and extreme elevations in blood pressure (usually diastolic pressures greater than 125 mm Hg). The altered mental states include irritability, confusion, convulsions, and/or coma. Nausea, vomiting, and visual disturbances are common. The symptoms resolve as the blood pressure is brought under control. Hypertensive encephalopathy is an emergency that requires immediate treatment, usually with intravenous medications.
Synonym: posthypoxia syndrome
See also: encephalopathy
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
Under such conditions, some of the neuroradiologic findings could show typical transient white matter edema in the subcortical parietal and occipital lobes, as observed in cases of acute hypertensive encephalopathy. As in our two patients with typical TAC-E (Patients 1 and 2), elevated blood pressure and TAC levels were observed in most episodes.
Preeclampsia-eclampsia: clinical and neuroradiographic correlates and insights into the pathogenesis of hypertensive encephalopathy. Radiology 2000; 217:371-6.
Measurement of these specific markers may be useful to evaluate endothelial integrity in patients who are preeclamptic, especially patients who are at risk for progression to hypertensive encephalopathy, such as those with neurologic signs and symptoms.
Causes include hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia, combination chemotherapy, renal failure and septic shock.
Headache can be caused by acute elevation in blood pressure tied to hypertensive encephalopathy, preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count), or posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), "an entity that we are seeing a lot more recently," Dr.
Headache can be caused by acute elevation in blood pressure due to hypertensive encephalopathy, preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count), or posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), Dr.
Hypertensive encephalopathy, renal failure, vasculitis, immunosuppressive treatment, and eclampsia have been reported to be major causes of this syndrome (Javad et al., 2005).
Several "overlap syndromes"--postpartum cerebral angiopathy, hypertensive encephalopathy, and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome--may show neuroimaging features that are similar to or indistinguishable from those of eclampsia, the authors said (Clin.
Severe life-threatening renal disease (scleroderma renal crisis) develops in approximately 10%-15% of patients with diffuse sclerosis and is characterized by acute onset of kidney failure in the absence of previous kidney disease; abrupt onset of moderate to marked hypertension, often times with at least grade III hypertensive retinopathy; and hypertensive-associated manifestations, including microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, pulmonary edema, headache, blurred vision, and hypertensive encephalopathy, frequently manifesting with seizures.
Eclampsia is defined as the occurrence of seizures and/or coma resulting from hypertensive encephalopathy on a background of preeclampsia (1).
She was felt to have possible hypertensive encephalopathy and recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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