According to clinical presentations, the major symptoms include the following: (1) Hypokalemia (2) hyperkaluria (3) metabolic alkalosis (4) hyperreninemia
(5) hyperaldosteronemia (6) exogenous vasopressin insensitivity (7) juxtaglomerular hyperplasia (8) hypochloremia (9) normal blood pressure, and (10) clear family history.
Indeed, further investigations revealed that VDR knockout mice developed hyperreninemia
, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and polyuria, and these abnormalities were independent of vitamin D's actions on calcium and skeletal homeostasis.
In the kidneys, injury to the medium-sized arteries can precipitate scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) with malignant hypertension and hyperreninemia
, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and rapidly progressive renal failure.
The vicious cycle of decreased blood flow, ischemia, hyperreninemia
, hypertension, and further vasoconstriction almost invariably led to a fatal outcome before the availability of ACE inhibitor therapy.
Laxative-induced hypokalemia, sodium depletion and hyperreninemia
This results in a characteristic set of metabolic abnormalities, including: hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia
, hyperaldosteronism hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, and, in some patients, hypomagnesemia.