Disorders in the lower urinary tract including hyperreflexic bladder
, decreased adaptation and detrusor-sphynther dysynergia cause to a bladder which functions with a high pressure and incomplete emptying of the bladder.
Generally, supraspinal injury such as stroke causes an uninhibited or hyperreflexic bladder
. Urinary retention is less common.
Among four patients with hyperreflexic bladder
, surgery changed the detrusor hyperreflexia and high detrusor pressure to nearly normal storage and synergic voiding.
* Suprasacral spinal cord lesion (hyperreflexic bladder
)--these patient present with a spastic bladder and internal sphincter and they often have DSD detrusor sphincter dyssynergia) where there is a lack of co-ordination between the detrusor muscle and internal sphincter.
 have an interest in cerebral palsy patients and bladder function; 16.4% of their cohort showed spastic, hyperreflexic bladders
on urodynamic testing.