These tricks were simple compared with those of the bizarre entities Ray describes as "hyperparasites." Tierran organisms normally "compete" for space in the soup, yet "they invented innovations for competing for time," Ray says.
When a normal parasite invades one of these hyperparasites and attempts to reproduce using the host's copy procedure, the hyperparasite substitutes its own code for the unsuspecting organism to copy throughout its life.
Geographical distribution of Acyrthosiphon kondi Shinji (Homoptera: Aphididae) and some of its parasites and hyperparasites
Cell structure of shellfish pathogens and hyperparasites in the genera Minchinia, Urosporidium, Haplosporidium, and Marteilia--taxonomic implications.
(1979), an unidentified worm, and the haplosporidian hyperparasite of larval nematodes, previously reported by Lichtenfels et al.
It uses heat and pressure to sterilize material to be scrapped, like "plant parts that come in with a shipment, packing material, hyperparasites
, dead hosts--anything that must be disposed of," says Ertle.