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Regarding oxygen saturation, there was a clinical difference between animals in which PEEP 2 was used (96% saturation) and those receiving PEEP 5 (99% saturation, hyperoxia) and PEEP 10 (100% saturation, hyperoxia), with the same Fi[O.sub.2] (100%).
Supportive care may include assisted ventilation, with care to avoid hypocarbia and hyperoxia. [2] Hypocarbia causes vasoconstriction with decreased cerebral perfusion and hyperoxia increases oxidative stress; therefore the recommended PaC[O.sub.2] is 40-55 mmHg and Pa[O.sub.2] is 50 -100 mmHg.
Further work showed the differential gene effects of pressure and oxygen, (33) whereby different and similar clusters of neuronal genes are affected by different pressures and different amounts of hyperoxia. (34) In essence, during hyperbaric therapy physicians are playing a symphony with patients' gene expression, the music of which is determined by the various pressures and amounts of hyperoxia to which the patient is exposed.
During hyperoxia, the rupture of the airway epithelium barrier may increase pulmonary permeability, release of inflammatory mediators, and fluid congestion [1], with significant cell infiltration into the immature lung.
Tierney, "Butyrate increases catalase activity and protects rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells against hyperoxia," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.
Supplemental tests could include basic metabolic panel, electrocardiogram, blood cultures, and a hyperoxia test.
Specifically, constitutive or conditional genetic deletion of Dll4 in ROSA26-CreERT2+/-; [Dll4.sup.COIN/+] mice or pharmacological inhibition of Dll4/Notch signaling using Dll4-Fc inhibited the normal developmental pruning of capillaries in the developing retinal vasculature, as well as blood vessel regression following the acute exposure to hyperoxia in OIR [51].
The effect of hyperoxia on submaximal exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus.
Proposed mechanisms of increased myocardial injury from hyperoxia include increased coronary vascular resistance resulting in decreased myocardial perfusion, and increased reperfusion injury from formation of free radicals.
In advanced cases, it's associated with hyperoxia (excess oxygen in tissues) and vomiting due to uremic toxins and gastric hyperacidity.