In cellular level, plants have developed complex mechanisms to adjust hyperosmotic
stress and ionic imbalance by osmotic adjustment (OA).
Since the strain DPSW showed poor performance in ethanol tolerability, cell density, and hyperosmotic
tolerance, it was not used in dough making process.
Of note, hyperosmotic
and NaCl stress are known environmental conditions, which induce mitochondria-mediated cell death in yeast [51, 52].
The [alpha]-type PLD comprises 3 isoforms involved in hyperosmotic
stresses  and senescence presumably by transducing phytohormone signals .
A patient of diabetes mellitus may present with a range of symptoms characterized by polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss and blurring of vision to more serious conditions like stupor, coma and even death caused by ketoacidosis or non-ketotic hyperosmotic
The expression and actions of Fmo1 may be influenced by hyperosmotic
settings in the kidney of rats (32) Fmo1is also highly expressed in metabolic tissues, including liver, kidney, white and brown adipose tissue and has an active role in mammalian endogenous metabolism (33).
These particles were smaller than the 80-100 nm generally observed for bunyavirus particles; the small size was attributed to overnight sedimentation through a hyperosmotic
(3) Ice crystals form in extracellular fluid, which, in turn, cause cellular dehydration and hyperosmotic
On the other hand, Grovum (1995) reported that when the same dose of hyperosmotic
sodium chloride, polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG), sodium acetate or sodium propionate was infused intraruminally to increase ruminal fluid osmolality in sheep, it resulted in the same-sized decrease in intake of alfalfa pellets.
crustaceans sodium influxes from dilute media have been reported (Sutcliffe 1968; Harris 1970).
In Crassostrea corteziensis, similar hemocyte mortality (0.50%-0.59%) of oysters exposed for 48 h to hypo- and hyperosmotic
conditions (10 and 50 ups) have been reported (Perez-Velasco 2014).
Lubricants are hyperosmotic
, hypo-osmotic, or iso-osmotic.