The distinguishing feature is a loss of homeostasis of the tear film, accompanied by ocular symptoms, including tear film instability and hyperosmolarity
, inflammation and damage, and neurosensory abnormalities that all play etiological roles.
Recent in vitro and in vivo studies on animals suggest that water-based lubricants are not safe and induce mucosal irritation due to product hyperosmolarity
(12) that can lead to toxic effects and eventually lead to increase in the acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted pathogens such as HIV (12).
Hyperglycemia causes hyperosmolarity
(each 18 mg/dl rise in glucose rises osmolarity by 1.
Experimental animal studies have shown that tolerability of hyperosmolarity
may be related to the duration of infusion in regards to the development of phlebitis and not directly related to osmolality of the solution itself.
Potential mechanisms include effects of temperature or other ambient conditions on dehydration and hyperosmolarity
of the airways, which may directly induce exacerbations of asthma by triggering bronchoconstriction (Anderson and Daviskas 2000).
In cases of dry eye in humans, it has been well established that the osmotic pattern is altered due to the high evaporation rate and the reduced aqueous flow, which results in hyperosmolarity
, above 316mOs[mL.
After admission, the patient had CSF rhinorrhea, grand mal seizures, hyperosmolarity
, hyperglycemia, aspiration pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, and coma.
A link between tear instability and hyperosmolarity
in dry eye," Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol.
Pathologically, the renal medulla is characterized by anoxia, hyperosmolarity
and low pH that promote hemoglobin S polymerization and red blood cell sickling.
and urea in medullary interstitium of the POK to establish its hyperosmolarity
(as evidenced by rise in [U.
21 Diabetes with hyperosmolarity
, type I (juvenile type), not stated as uncontrolled, .
It is known that the neurons in the direct pathway which are preserved functionally start to be fired because of reduced epileptic threshold in hyperosmolarity
and this excessive acitivity in the direct pathway leads to metabolic irregularity.