and/or scoliosis was described in 23 (95.8%) individuals.
A different but no less important consideration--when considering the possibility of a neuraxial regional anesthesia technique--are the musculoskeletal abnormalities of the spine, such as lumbar hyperlordosis
, thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis, and spinal stenosis, combined with the physiological changes typical of pregnancy that may give rise to technical complications and increased risk of complications.
- alignment of lumbar column and pelvis (diminution of lumbar hyperlordosis
 Shortening of the iliopsoas muscle was found to be the primary cause of lumbar hyperlordosis
and excessive anterior pelvic tilt.
often results from an attempt to increase turnout at the hip by putting the hip joint in a position where the capsular ligaments are loosened (hip flexion, or anterior pelvic tilt), which allows the femur to rotate more in the hip socket.
Characteristic features of the spine in pycnodysostosis are scoliosis, kyphosis, and lumbar hyperlordosis
At neurological examination he presented lumbar hyperlordosis
, abdominal breath, and waddling gait.
Radiographs showed multiple changes of the skeleton, including end-stage osteoarthritis of the hip joints (Figure 1) and knee joints and hyperlordosis
of the lumbar spine.
reported that, in a supine position, hyperlordosis
, skeletal traction, and percutaneous IS screw fixation had good reduction results in 3 cases .
[1,2] Predisposing factors include family history, repetitive microtraumas, and lumbar hyperlordosis
The effect of the imbalanced asymmetrical pulls of the musculature results in the characteristic UCS posture which involves hyperkyphosis of the thoracic spine, hypolordosis of the lower cervical spine, hyperlordosis
of the upper cervical spine, forward head carriage, protraction of the shoulder girdles, and medial/internal rotation of the arms at the glenohumeral joints (Figure 3).
Congenital arthrogryposis, fasciculations, foot deformities with calcaneovalgus, pes planus and pes valgus (Figure 2(c)), contractures, hip dysplasia, or hyperlordosis
may be evident .