These papillae are surmounted by columns of parakeratosis ("church spire" parakeratosis), whereas the "valleys" between the papillae show hypergranulosis
(Figure 7, B).
Histopathologically, LP shows orthokeratosis, hypergranulosis
, compact and lamellated hyperkeratosis, and elongation of rete ridges.
Spongiotic epidermis, hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis
, uniform acanthosis, dermal oedema, superficial perivascular infiltrate with lymphocyte and eosinophils 5.
The commonest histopathological features recognized in our study were sawtooth rete ridges/ irregular acanthosis in 85%, vacuolar degeneration of basal layer in 81.7%, band-like infiltrate in 71.7%, hyperkeratosis/ orthokeratosis in 63.3% and wedge-shaped hypergranulosis
in 61.7% of cases (Figure 2).
Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed papillary structures presenting with hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis
, elongated retes showing a tendency to converge towards the center on a large and flat ground, and koilocytes in the spinous layer and the lesion was determined to be consistent with verruca vulgaris (Figure 2).
The epidermis was characterized by flattening of the rete ridges, hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis
and regular palisading basal cell layer, blood vessels were oriented vertically.
Histological examination of ILVEN shows areas of hypergranulosis
and orthokeratosis alternating with areas of hypogranulosis and parakeratosis .
The cystic epithelium showed areas of hyperplasia and broad bulbous rete ridges (Figure 4) along with areas of hypergranulosis
. Koilocytic changes were also seen along with increased melanin pigmentation and melanin incontinence (inset).
Epidermal changes in LP lesions include irregular epidermal hyperplasia with a jagged "sawtooth" appearance, compact hyperkeratosis or orthokeratosis, foci of wedge-shaped hypergranulosis
, basilar vacuolar degeneration, slight spongiosis in the spinous layer, and squamatization.
Skin biopsy revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hypergranulosis
, large papillae with blunt rete ridges and a perivascular lymphocytic infiltration in the supra-papillary region of dermis (Fig.2).
The prevalence of hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis
, and acanthosis increased significantly with stage of lymphedema.
Histologically, first-stage sebaceous nevi are characterized by papillomatous epidermal hyperplasia, hypergranulosis
, hyperkeratosis, and increased numbers of prickle cells.