hyperglycemic


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Related to hyperglycemic: hypoglycemic, Low Blood Sugar

hyperglycemic

 [hi″per-gli-se´mik]
1. characterized by or causing hyperglycemia.
2. an agent that has this effect.
hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic (HHNK) coma a metabolic derangement in which there is an abnormally high serum glucose level without ketoacidosis. It can occur as a complication of borderline and unrecognized diabetes mellitus, in pancreatic disorders that interfere with the production of insulin, as a complication of extensive burns, and in conditions marked by an excess of steroids, as in steroid therapy, or acute stress conditions, such as infection. It also may develop during total parenteral nutrition, hemodialysis, or peritoneal dialysis. Called also hyperosmolar nonketotic coma.
Symptoms. The hyperglycemia of HHNK coma is usually extreme, with fasting blood sugar levels ranging from 600 to 3000 mg per 100 ml of blood. In contrast to typical diabetic coma, however, the serum acetone level is normal or only slightly elevated. This occurs because, although there is sufficient insulin available to avoid ketosis, there is not enough to metabolize the glucose and thereby relieve the hyperglycemia.

Hyperosmolality, resulting from the extremely high concentration of sugar in the blood, causes a shift of water from the intracellular fluid (the less concentrated solution) into the blood (the higher concentrated solution). This results in cellular dehydration. Another symptom of HHNK coma, polyuria, occurs because the high plasma osmolality prevents the normal osmotic return of water to the blood by the renal tubules, and it is excreted in the urine. This leads to a decreased blood volume, which severely hampers the kidney's excretion of glucose and a vicious cycle is begun.
Treatment. It is essential that HHNK coma be recognized early and treatment begun immediately to break the chain of metabolic aberrations that are occurring. It is estimated that the mortality rate of HHNK coma is 60 to 70 per cent; the probable reason for this is failure to recognize the condition and institute prompt corrective measures.

Insulin is administered in small doses, the amount and frequency depending on periodic assessment of blood glucose levels. The objective is to avoid the extremes of hyperglycemia and insulin shock. Intravenous fluids are administered cautiously, so that the sodium and water deficits can be corrected without producing extreme shifts of water from the blood into the intracellular compartment and thus failing to correct the hyperosmolar condition of the blood. Electrolytes other than the sodium lost through diuresis also must be replaced as indicated by laboratory findings.
Patient Care. Fluid volume deficit plays a major role in the development of severe HHNK coma; thus patient care is concerned with careful monitoring of those patients susceptible to its development, especially the elderly, the debilitated, and the mild or unsuspected diabetic. Maintenance of an adequate fluid balance can do much to prevent the hyperosmolar condition and the development of a chain of events that can rapidly lead to coma and death.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

hyperglycemic

(hī″pĕr-glī-sē'mĭk) [Gr. hyper-, above, excessive, + glykys, sweet, + haima, blood]
1. Pert. to an elevated blood glucose concentration.
2. An agent that produces an elevated blood glucose level.
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
These investigators noted that 53% of patients had a hyperglycemic event (serum glucose > 180 mg/dL), significant elevation of fasting morning glucose on days one and five after injection, and significantly higher elevations with insulin-dependent diabetics.
Dr Stuart Robertson, who examined the case after Mrs Gillott's death, said she was suffering from kidney failure and the medication prescribed for her therefore increased the risk of hyperglycemic episodes.
Possibly, a long-term mild hyperglycemic insult can have more severe detrimental impact in architectural parameters than short-term severe hyperglycemic insult.
The results showed in the present study that in hyperglycemic patients the lipid level are higher and the similar results were shown by Agrawal et al 2014 and Huang et al 2014.
The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro LC ability to counteract oxidative stress condition, modifying ROS production and promoting mitochondrial detoxifying function in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes under hyperglycemic condition (25 mmol/L glucose).
The patient was found to be in a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state with a serum osmolality of 395 mmol/kg (reference range 275-295 mmol/kg).
While fasting, there was little change in retinal artery diameters during dark adaptation, but from the more constricted hyperglycemic baseline, dark adaptation was accompanied by a 2.0% increase in retinal artery diameter, from 168.0 [+ or -] 13.8 [micro]m to 171.4 [+ or -] 14.3 [micro]m at 20 min (P = 0.002) and 170.8 [+ or -] 15.0 [micro]m or 1.7% more than that before dark adaptation at 40 min (P = 0.022; Table 2).
After 24 hrs, hyperglycemic conditions were applied as aforementioned.
The monitorization of blood glucose levels along the study confirmed the maintenance of the hyperglycemic status of STZ-treated animals (Figure 1) in line with serum glucose levels measured at sacrifice (Table 1).
Nyenwe, "Hyperglycemic crises in diabetes mellitus: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state," Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol.
Under a diagnosis of nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome, the patient's blood glucose level was controlled with subcutaneous injection of insulin.
Group 1 served as hyperglycemic, group 2 was hyperglycemic control (putting immobilization), group 3 in common with immobilization was administrated (got fixed) in single oral doses in 2 mL aqueous extract of SR.

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