In 1966 McGavran et al  added to the symptoms hyperglucagonemia
and their combination named as glucagonome syndrome (GS).
Insulin suppression is associated with hypersomatostatinemia and hyperglucagonemia
in glucose-injected rainbow trout.
One possible explanation is the hyperglucagonemia
that is present in diabetic animals .
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and metabolic disturbances of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids principally caused by pancreatic [beta]-cell dysfunction, hyperglucagonemia
, and increased renal glucose reabsorption [1, 2].
In their study, reversal of hyperglucagonemia
by liraglutide or a glucagon-neutralizing antibody does not suppress increased hepatic gluconeogenic expression or improve blood glucose control but does attenuate ketosis in uncontrolled diabetes .
The cause of the disease is not clear, though zinc deficiency, hypoaminoacidemia and hyperglucagonemia
have been proposed.
Decrease in [beta]-cell mass leads to impaired pulsatile insulin secretion, reduced postprandial hepatic insulin clearance, and relative hyperglucagonemia
in the minipig.
As DeFronzo has highlighted, the accelerated lipolysis of fat cells, deficiency in incretin axis, hyperglucagonemia
from a-cell hyperactivity, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney are all key components in the pathogenesis and progression of T2DM (22).
Robinson et al., "Hyperglucagonemia
mitigates the effect of metformin on glucose production in prediabetes," Cell Reports, vol.
The human amylin analog, pramlintide, reduces postprandial hyperglucagonemia
in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
As described by Hoffman et al.,  specific candidates for induction and stimulation of autophagy include insulin deficiency/resistance [105,106]; deficiency of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) [104,107]; hyperglucagonemia
; and hyperglycemia .
Hung et al., "Chronic treatment with the AMP-kinase activator AICAR increases glycogen storage and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscles but does not reduce hyperglucagonemia
and hyperglycemia in insulin deficient rats," PLoS ONE, vol.