There is also an association with concurrent disco-ligamentous soft tissue injuries secondary to distraction, especially involving the posterior annulus of the disc, posterior longitudinal ligament and the interspinous ligaments, reflecting its hyperflexion
There is less torsional force concentrated at the knee, but more hyperextention and hyperflexion
forces across the ankle.
Another example would be to change the angle or height of a chair to limit the amount of hyperflexion
and hyperextension of the hand that occurs during the course of a typical workday.
Positive findings on at least one of the following three provocation tests for SIJ pain: (i) Gaenslen's test in which the hip joint is flexed maximally on one side, and the opposite hip joint is extended, stressing both sacroiliac joints simultaneously), (12) (ii) Patrick's test [flexion, abduction external rotation (FABERE) test], (13) (iii) Newton's test (thigh hyperflexion
test), (14) a negative response to Kemp's test, (15) one of the pain provocation tests for sciatica (Patient's trunk rotates obliquely downward in the affected lumbosacral area.
and hyperextension of the knee joint during TKA causes kinking of the popliteal artery with possible injury to it especially in the presence of atherosclerosis.
19,20) Additional special tests of the median and ulnar nerves were performed on both upper extremities of each subject and included the elbow hyperflexion
test (EHFT) to assess for ulnar neuropathy at the elbow,21 upper limb neural dynamic testing (ULNDT) to determine irritation of the cervical nerve roots or upper extremity nerves,22 and wrist ratio tests that determines the ratio of both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral widths measured at the distal crease of the wrist.
Overload may cause hyperflexion
, hyperextension, and/or a varus knee.
In the case presented here, the injury occurred through pure hyperflexion
against a seat belt with a two-point waist strap, of the common type whose use is compulsory for air passengers in certain situations.
If a rod of steel appears to move four degrees, how can an alleged hyperflexion
of twice that amount by a McGrath or a Pollock be taken seriously?
Neck hyperextension or hyperflexion
can impede blood drainage into the jugular veins, inducing increases in ICP, and must be avoided.
yrs) Activity of Injury Initial MRI F/U MRI 1 28 Soccer Hyperextension June 1995 February 1996 2 30 Fall Hyperflexion
May 1995 February 1996 3 35 Football Hyperflexion
January 1994 January 1996 4 30 Wrestling Hyperextension October 1994 December 1995 5 21 MVA Hyperflexion
October 1994 December 1995 6 20 Baseball Hyperextension August 1993 February 1995 7 35 Bicycling Uncertain March 1996 September 1996 8 15 Soccer Hyperextension April 1996 January 1997 Patient Status of PCL on No.