Keywords: Distal renal tubular acidosis, Hypercalciuria
, Hypocitraturia, Metabolic workup, Urolithiasis.
These patients have hypercalciuria
but not distal renal tubular acidosis and primary hyperparathyroidism .
Similarly, an exposure to hypercalciuria
produces cellular injury and ROS-induced lipid peroxidation which stimulates calcium oxalate deposition .
Dent disease is characterized by low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, hypercalciuria
, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and progressive renal failure (Devuyst & Thakker, 2010; Lieske et al., 2014).
Bartter syndrome is an inherited renal tubulopathy affecting the loop of Henle (ascending limb) that manifests as hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypercalciuria
, and mild hypomagnesemia.
The inherited causes of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia include X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR), autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR), and hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria
(HHRH) which are biochemical equivalents of TIO with high or inappropriately normal levels of FGF23 [1, 13].
Mira et al., "Aquaporin 2 and apical calcium-sensing receptor: new players in polyuric disorders associated with hypercalciuria
," Seminars in Nephrology, vol.
Study exclusions included osteomalacia, malabsorption, hyperparathyroidism, active kidney stones, history of hypercalciuria
, cancer, incurable disease, dementia, severe chronic illness (renal or liver failure), recent stroke or fracture, and drugs that affect bone metabolism.
"The relationship between hypercalciuria
and metabolic acidosis is further confirmed by population studies, in which urinary calcium excretion is lower when the urine is more alkaline, whereas more acidic urine is associated with higher urinary calcium."
For example, factors such as hypercalciuria
, disturbed calcium and vitamin D metabolism, use of anti-inflammatory drugs, and immobilization have been suggested to cause nephrolithiasis in AS patients.
Chemical Composition Frequency Causative Factors Calcium-containing 70-80% Underlying metabolic abnormality (hypercalciuria
, hyperoxaluria, decreased urinary citrate excretion) Struvite 10-20% Urease producing bacteria (infection) Alkaline pH Urate 5% Hyperuricemia Acidic pH Cystine 1-2% Renal tubular defects
Findings on examination of the eyes (cornea and conjunctiva), urinalysis (for hypercalciuria
, proteinuria, and hematuria/red cell casts), and ultrasonography of the renal system were unremarkable.