In this regard, studies confirm that MS is more common among PCOS patients due to the higher prevalence of IR and hyperadiposity (visceral) in these women [11,12].
In this regard, obstructive sleep apnea is a common feature in adult  and adolescent  PCOS patients suffering multiple comorbidities, such as IR and hyperadiposity. Significant chronodisruption occurs in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea as evidenced by a disrupted melatonin circadian rhythm .
Neonatal monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) administration induces morphological, behavioral, and neuroendocrine abnormalities such as growth disturbances, self-mutilation, hyperadiposity, and hypogonadism [1-4].
Accordingly, we have recently addressed that the treatment with enhancers of insulin activity, although in a model of diet-induced hyperadiposity, was effective in preventing hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertrophic expansion of abdominal adipose tissue mass, and adipocyte leptin mRNA overexpression, whose mechanisms were mainly mediated by the improvement of both IRS-1 and IRS-2 functionalities after metformin .
Diet-induced obesity in gravid rats engenders early hyperadiposity
in the offspring.
Different phenotypes of MetS combining hyperadiposity
, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension results in multifactorial responses such as the high risk for hepatic steatosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
It is openly accepted that MSG treatment induces morphological, behavioral, and endocrine abnormalities, such as growth disturbances, hyperadiposity, and hypogonadism [1, 3].
As mentioned above, in adult age, MSG-damaged rats have already installed hypophagy, low body weight, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, hyperuricemia, hyperadiposity, inflammation, and increased plasma levels of corticosterone, TBARS, and lipids [19, 29].