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scopolamine (hyoscine (UK))
scopolamine hydrobromide (hyoscine hydrobromide)
Pharmacologic class: Antimuscarinic, belladonna alkaloid
Therapeutic class: Antiemetic, antivertigo agent, anticholinergic
Pregnancy risk category C
Acts as competitive inhibitor at postganglionic muscarinic receptor sites of parasympathetic nervous system and on smooth muscles that respond to acetylcholine but lack cholinergic innervation. May block cholinergic transmission from vestibular nuclei to higher CNS centers and from reticular formation to vomiting center.
Injection: 1 mg/ml in 1-ml vials, 0.4 mg/ml in 0.5-ml ampules and 1-ml vials, 0.86 mg/ml in 0.5-ml ampules
Transdermal system (Transderm-Scop): 1.5 mg/patch (releases 0.5 mg scopolamine over 3 days)
Indications and dosages
➣ Preanesthetic sedation and obstetric amnesia
Adults: 0.3 to 0.6 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 45 to 60 minutes before anesthesia, usually given with analgesics
➣ Postoperative nausea and vomiting
Adults: One transdermal patch placed behind ear on evening before surgery and kept in place for 24 hours after surgery. For cesarean section, one transdermal patch placed behind ear 1 hour before surgery.
➣ Motion sickness
Adults: One transdermal patch placed behind ear 4 hours before anticipated need, replaced q 3 days if needed
• Hypersensitivity to scopolamine, other belladonna alkaloids, or barbiturates
• Hypersensitivity to bromides (injection only)
• Angle-closure glaucoma
• Acute hemorrhage
• Myasthenia gravis
• Obstructive uropathy (including prostatic hypertrophy)
• Obstructive GI disease (including paralytic ileus and intestinal atony)
• Reflux esophagitis
• Ulcerative colitis or toxic megacolon
• Hepatic or renal impairment
• Chronic lung disease (with repeated doses)
Use cautiously in:
• suspected intestinal obstruction; pulmonary or cardiac disease; tachyarrhythmia or tachycardia; open-angle glaucoma; autonomic neuropathy; hypertension; hyperthyroidism; ileostomy or colostomy
• history of seizures or psychosis
• elderly patients
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients (safety not established)
• For I.V. use, give by direct injection at prescribed rate after diluting with sterile water.
• After removing protective strip from transdermal patch, avoid finger contact with exposed adhesive layer to prevent contamination.
CNS: drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, restlessness, fatigue
CV: tachycardia, palpitations, hypotension, transient heart rate changes
EENT: blurred vision, mydriasis, photophobia, conjunctivitis
GI: constipation, dry mouth
GU: urinary hesitancy or retention
Skin: decreased sweating, rash
Drug-drug. Antidepressants, antihistamines, disopyramide, quinidine: additive anticholinergic effects
Antidepressants, antihistamines, opioid analgesics, sedative-hypnotics: additive CNS depression
Oral drugs: altered absorption of these drugs
Wax-matrix potassium tablets: increased GI mucosal lesions
Drug-herbs. Angel's trumpet, jimsonweed, scopolia: increased anticholinergic effects
Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: increased CNS depression
• Assess vital signs and neurologic, cardiovascular, and respiratory status.
• Monitor patient for urinary hesitancy or retention.
• Tell patient transdermal patch is most effective if applied to dry skin behind ear 4 hours before traveling.
• Caution patient to avoid touching exposed adhesive layer of transdermal patch.
• Advise patient to wash and dry hands thoroughly before and after applying patch.
• If patch becomes dislodged, instruct patient to remove it and apply new patch on a different site behind ear.
• Tell patient that using patch for more than 72 hours may cause withdrawal symptoms (headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness). Advise him to limit use when feasible.
• Inform patient that his eyes may be markedly sensitive to light during patch use. Instruct him to wear sunglasses and use other measures to guard eyes from light.
• Caution patient to avoid alcohol because it may increase CNS depression.
• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.