The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features of the hyoid bone in Anatolian population and contribute additional data to the literature.
First, infrahyoid muscles and thyrohyoid membrane were cut following from the down to 1 cm of hyoid bone, then muscular and ligamentous structures of bone were removed.
In their new study, the Mount Sinai investigators took measurements of hyoid shape and size from a variety of mammals, including humans, apes, gibbons, baboons, dogs, sheep, pigs, rabbits, rats, dolphins, and whales.
Considerable variation in hyoid shape appeared, both among species and among individuals in the same species, Reidenberg says.
Falk's reconstruction of the larynx and hyoid position in the same specimen analyzed by Lieberman, described in the July 1975 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, indicates Neanderthals could produce the full range of speech sounds.
In his opinion, the Kebara hyoid bone lends credence to the notion that Neanderthals were capable of modern speech.
In fact, when glossectomy is combined with anterior mandible resection and/or removal of these muscles, the patient loses the ability to pull the hyoid and the larynx up and forward to open the upper esophageal sphincter leading to pharyngeal dysphagia and food remaining in the pyriform sinus and in the pharynx [19, 33] (Figure 1(b)).
When bilateral neck dissections are needed, this results in poor swallowing unless the superior laryngeal nerve, hyoid bone, and epiglottis remain intact.
DISCUSSION: The incidence of omohyoid anomalies among infra hyoid muscles is high.
Unusual omohyoid forms described by Bergman et al include: cleidofascialis, which originates from the middle third of the clavicle and inserts in to the fascia colli (neck); Cleidohyoideus, which originates behind the origin of the cleidomastoid part of sternocleidomastoid and inserts onto the body of the hyoid bone ; and hyofascialis, which originates from the hyoid and inserts into the omosternoclavicular fascia (9).
The hyoid starts out as three small bones with joint-like connections but hardens during middle age into a U-shape that can break more easily.
"If, hypothetically, the hyoid bone is broken, that would generally raise questions about strangulation, but it is not definitive and does not exclude suicidal hanging," he said.