(13,14) These birds also did not exhibit any clinical signs associated with the injured hyoid apparatus and were allowed to heal by benign neglect.
(18) This is unlike psittacine birds, whose large, rounded skulls and voluminous beaks make it easier to identify small, delicate bone structures, such as the hyoid apparatus. (18,19) Lateral projections are recommended to evaluate the psittacine hyoid apparatus, and an oblique view of the skull can be used to successfully diagnose a fractured hyoid bone in psittacine birds.
Finite element analysis of the hyoid apparatus was performed using the commercial code, ABAQUS-Explicit.
Microstructure and Model Development of the Hyoid Apparatus
For this case, advanced imaging likely would have been beneficial before surgery, especially because the cyst appeared to incorporate the jugular vein and hyoid apparatus cranially.
In the present case, complete surgical excision was deemed not possible because of the incorporation of the hyoid apparatus. Radiation therapy has been described in avian patients, (23-28) including a few patients with various types of carcinoma, (23,24) but treatment success is variable and often poor.
Key words: lingual entrapment, hyoid apparatus, computed tomography, avian, Chinese goose, Anser cygnoides
A month after the initial discomfort was noticed, ventral displacement of the hyoid apparatus, associated with distension of the intermandibular sublingual space and of the gular skin, were observed on oral examination.