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Related to hydroxylate: hydrolyze, Venturi effect


Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before.
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HIF-1 prolyl-hydroxylases (HPHs) in the presence of [O.sub.2], iron, and a-ketoglutarate hydroxylate the proline residues 402 and 564 of the oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODD) of HIF1a [126, 127], which in turn induce a conformational change of HIFa, thus allowing Von Hippel-Lindau protein (VHL) to bind with it [62].
Further evidence that vitamin D anagoges have anticancer effects, was reported in (International Journal of Cancer 122, 2699-2706 (2008)) This study found that non-kidney cells can also hydroxylate 25(OH)D, implying that higher 25(OH) D levels could protect against cancer in local sites.
Animals and humans, and their excised tissues, are known to hydroxylate DHEA at several positions and to interconvert 7 alpha-hydroxy-DHEA, 7 beta-hydroxy-DHEA, 7-oxo-DHEA, and the corresponding derivatives of androst-5-enediol.
The hydroxylate surfaces of these oxides in aqueous medium undergo dissociation resulting in increased number of sites for the adsorption of COD.
Fluvoxamine but not citalopram increases serum melatonin in healthy subjects--an indication that cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 hydroxylate melatonin.
(8) The CYP3A43 enzyme is inactive, but splicing of CYP3A43 exon 1 to CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 exons produces hybrid mRNA products, of which the longest CYP3A43/CYP3A4 chimeric isoform can hydroxylate testosterone.
P450 2C enzymes hydroxylate about 16% of drugs that are in current clinical use and participate in the metabolism of several clinically important substrate drugs.
It has been shown that CYP1A1, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 in microsomes of human liver cells were able to hydroxylate ATRA, but none of these enzymes at protein and mRNA levels were inducible by ATRA and have low specificity for ATRA [91,92].
CYP2C19*16 was reported in a Japanese subject demonstrating a lowered capacity to hydroxylate mephobarbital (9).
The lack of enzyme predisposed her to the inability to hydroxylate methadone, amitriptyline, and nortriptyline, resulting in an overall accumulation and drug toxicity.
Although there is no recommended dietary intake (RDI) for this vitamin, it is explained in the background paper that vitamin D supplements may be required for elderly people who are immobile or infirmed and confined indoors; and in patients with chronic renal failure who are unable to hydroxylate the precursor (25 hydroxyvitamin D3) to the active form (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3), a process which normally occurs in the kidneys.