The reported frequency of gastrointestinal involvement in HSP varies between 29% and 69%. Gastrointestinal symptoms most frequently include abdominal pain and guaiac-positive stools. Other gastrointestinal manifestations of HSP are protein-losing enteropathy, functional intestinal obstruction, steatorrhea, hydrops of gallbladder
, and pseudomembranous colitis. Potentially life-threatening complications that might need surgery, such as intussusception, intestinal obstruction, bowel infarction, necrosis and perforations, massive GI bleeding, pancreatitis, hydrops of gallbladder
, and scrotal swelling mimicking testicular torsion.