During denaturation processes, rupture of hydrogen bonds may lead to endothermic reactions, and disruption of hydrophobic bonds
may lead to exothermic reactions.
However, above the LCST, the polymers remained intact which is due to the dominance of the hydrophobic bonds
present in the system.
Additionally, this compound is capable of forming the ionic, hydrogen, and hydrophobic bonds
. A feature unique to this compound is the ability of the phosphinic acid to more truly mimic the ionized, tetrahedral intermediate of peptide hydrolysis.
The "weak" hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds
are the most common and most studied, but maybe there are circumstances in which tannins get strongly bonded--covalent bonds--to whatever works for them, rendering them nearly impervious to conventional winemaking methods.
In addition between 25 and 35[degrees]C, the solution showed a decrease in viscosity attributed to the breaking of hydrophobic bonds and the decrease in the relaxation time as well as to the increase in temperature.
Starting at 40CC, viscosity values are close to 100,00 en 25 and 30[degrees]C the viscosity decreases along with the amount of hydrophobic bonds since the increase in temperature destroys this kind of interactions.
On the other hand, it can be assumed that the addition of SDS to the sample shifts the LCST to a range between 35 and 40[degrees]C due to the generation of new unions in this temperature interval attributed to the NIPAM hydrophobic bonds. From 40 to 70[degrees]C, the viscosity remains close to 100,000 mPa.s.