The review of related literatures on the incorporation of hydrogen donor, indicate that hydrogen donor help to remove heteroatoms attached to the asphaltenes and also inhibit coke formation by hydrogenation of coke precursors formed during thermal-catalytic cracking of the heavy oil.
The effect of hydrogen donor additive on the viscosity of the heavy oil during steam stimulation, Energy & Fuel, 16 (4): 842-846
Our results suggest the formation of palladium hydride (Pd-H) via hydrogen transfer from the hydrogen donor
to the palladium catalyst; this results in the hydride donating a hydrogen to the double bond of the sunflower oil and generates a semi-hydrogenated intermediate that is converted into the saturated product by the transfer of another hydrogen from the hydride.
Amines are the most efficient hydrogen donors
. The efficiency depends upon their oxidation potential.
Hit compounds from the database with estimated activity less than 0.1 [micro]M were selected for further screening using Lipinski's rule of five; compounds have (i) molecular weight less than 500, (ii) hydrogen donors
less than 5, (iii) hydrogen acceptors less than 10, and (iv) an octanol/water partition coefficient (LogP) value less than 5.
Concentration is obviously very important in the competition among various hydrogen donors
. For example, a low concentration of phenolic hydrogen will not greatly reduce peroxide efficiency.
Materials of this type include hydrogen donors
such as the hindered phenols and aromatic amines (ref.
L* abstracts hydrogen atoms from hydrogen donors
to yield D* radicals, which are very active to initiate polymerization of acrylate derivatives.