and anthropometric measurements were done in the Human Body Composition Laboratory, at the School of Nutrition and Dietetics from the University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia.
In the current study and in consideration of our sample size, use of a lab-based objective reference method of assessment of body composition such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and/or hydrodensitometry
 was not plausible, and hence, we used a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance body composition analyzer with an advanced functionality to measure percentage body fat, for which the validity and clinical usefulness was demonstrated in previous studies [170, 171].
(34.) Williams CA,BaleP.Bias and limits of agreement between hydrodensitometry
, bioelectrical impedance and skinfold calipers measures of percentage body fat.
The methods arising from the chemical model are popular due to hydrodensitometry
be the first technique known body analysis.
Determination of body composition: A comparison of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and hydrodensitometry
. Am J Clin Nutr.
Body composition measurement: a review of hydrodensitometry
, antropometry, and impedance methods.
Other techniques such as hydrodensitometry
, plethysmography, dilution techniques, total body count, neutron activation analysis, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance are difficult to perform due to multiple causes, such as the need of specialized personnel, high costs, and difficulties in patient transport.
 Other measures, generally limited to the research setting, include electrical impedance techniques, hydrodensitometry
(underwater weighing), computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Previous studies in our lab have shown the accuracy of DEXA for body composition to be [+ or -] 2.3% as assessed by direct comparison with hydrodensitometry
and scale weight.
Hutcheon, "Body composition measurement: a review of hydrodensitometry
, anthropometry, and impedance methods," Nutrition, vol.