Caption: A scanning electron micrograph of a Master X-Seed 55-dosed paste sample evidences elevated calcium silicate hydrate crystal
growth between portland cement grains.
When the gas dissolved to become the equilibrium state, the pressure tended to be stable, which was recorded as the starting point of induction time and the ending time was denoted with the formation of hydrate crystal
The TBAB CHS is comprised of fine solid particles (TBAB clathrate hydrate crystal
) and its aqueous solution.
Methane Hydrate Crystal
Mining -- Geologists have discovered frozen natural gas crystal deposits on the ocean bottom.
Methane hydrate crystal
mining: Rich deposits of frozen natural gas crystals on the ocean floor, if tapped, could supply substantial energy.
If the cluster is big enough and remains clustered long enough, it rearranges into a low-energy, highly ordered solid state called a hydrate crystal
However, adding activated silica fume into cement-stabilized soil mixed with seawater promotes the early hydration products at the initial period of cement hydration, resulting in the fact that the content in early hydrated calcium silicate (XRD studies show that calcium silicate hydrate crystals
are [Ca.sub.2]Si[O.sub.4] x 0.35[H.sub.2]O with a calcium silicon ratio C/S = 2 > 1.5, which belongs to a high alkaline calcium silicate hydrate) and hydrated calcium aluminosilicate (also known as gismondine, CaO x [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] x 2Si[O.sub.2] x 4[H.sub.2]O) is being higher and exhibiting high diffraction peaks.
When the seabed water temperature falls, hydrate crystals
can form in the pipeline and these could restrict the flow of gas and may seriously damage the pipelines.
Once separated from the gas stream, the C[O.sub.2] hydrate crystals
can be decomposed to regenerate C[O.sub.2] gas at elevated pressures for sequestration or sale on the emerging C[O.sub.2] market.
The hydrate crystals
have complex, three dimensional structures in which the water molecules form a cage and the guest molecules are entrapped in the cages.
When ice-like methane hydrate crystals
formed inside the massive 100-ton box, forcing its removal, plans were made to install a much smaller two-ton box called a top hat.