(10) In another study, histopathologic examination of ERM revealed the presence of vitreous hyalocytes, which supports the hypothesis that cells remaining on the retina surface following posterior vitreous detachment form a scaffold for ERM physiopathology.
The characterisation of hyalocytes: the origin, phenotype, and turnover.
Kawahara et al., "Possible contribution of hyalocytes
to idiopathic epiretinal membrane formation and its contraction," British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.
Furthermore, several evidence indicate that VitC stimulates the proliferation of different mesenchyme-derived cell types including osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and odontoblasts [103, 108, 139-146], as well as the proliferation of immunologically relevant T cells  and hyalocytes
(eye vitreous cells) .
Specifically, TGF-[beta]2, the main isoform in the posterior segment of the eye, activates Rho, leading to myosin light chain phosphorylation in hyalocytes
, which is associated with actin-myosin interaction to form stress fibers and cell contraction [85, 86].
Alternatively, ERMs may result from the transdifferentiation (cell conversion) and proliferation of hyalocytes
of vitreous origin that are left behind on the retinal surface following PVD.
Hisatomi et al., "Functional properties of hyalocytes
under PDGF-rich conditions," Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol.
It contains hyalocytes
and densely packed collagen, similar to the vitreous base which covers the ora serrata .
Histological analysis of ERMs has demonstrated the presence of a range of different cell types, including retinal pigment epithelial cells, hyalocytes
, fibrous astrocytes, glial cells and macrophages.
Kano et al., "Transforming growth factor-beta2 and connective tissue growth factor in proliferative vitreoretinal diseases: possible involvement of hyalocytes
and therapeutic potential of Rho kinase inhibitor," Diabetes, vol.
ROCK inhibitors are known to trigger an antifibrotic effect in several cell types in the eye, such as Tenon fibroblasts, the trabecular meshwork, retinal pigment epithelial cells, hyalocytes
, and corneal stroma cells.
In the normal eye, TGF-[beta] has been revealed in photoreceptors, aqueous humor, hyalocytes
of the vitreous body, and choroid , and its expression has proved to increase in PVR [82, 109].