hyaline membrane disease


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hyaline

 [hi´ah-līn]
glassy; pellucid.
hyaline membrane disease a disorder of newborns, typically preterm, characterized by the formation of a hyalinlike membrane lining the terminal respiratory passages. Newborns with this disease do not secrete adequate quantities of surfactant, which is secreted by the epithelium of the alveoli and normally decreases the surface tension of the fluids lining the alveoli and bronchioles so that air can pass through the fluids and into the alveoli. If the surface tension is not kept low by adequate supplies of surfactant, the alveoli cannot fill with air and there is partial or complete collapse of the lung (atelectasis). Thus the newborn with hyaline membrane disease suffers from respiratory insufficiency with severe dyspnea and cyanosis. The condition is treated with surfactant instillation, oxygen, and positive pressure. See also respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn.

hyaline membrane disease

hyaline membrane disease

hyaline membrane disease

Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn Pediatrics A morbid condition linked to up to 50% of neonatal deaths in the US–40,000/yr Clinical Atelectasis, hypoventilation, hypotensive shock, pulmonary vasoconstriction, alveolar hypoperfusion, shut-down of cell metabolism; 60% of HMD affects infants < 28 wks of age; 5% in infants > 37 wks Pathogenesis Surfactant deficiency, related to prematurity–insufficient phosphatidyl glycerol, intrapartum hypoxia, 'subacute' fetal distress, acidosis, family predisposition, α1-antitrypsin deficiency, thyroxine, prolactin, cortisol, estrogen; HMD is more frequent in the 2nd twin delivered, twin-to-twin transfusion recipient infant, ♂ infants, children of diabetic mothers and in cesarean sections; a vicious cycle begins where ↓ surfactant results in atelectasis, ↓ ventilation–↑ pCO2, ↓ pH, ↓ O2 and hypoxia exacerbating the lack of surfactant, causing shock and more hypoxia Clinical Early onset of tachypnea, prominent grunting, intercostal retractions–air hunger, cyanosis; the infants may not respond to O2; blood pressure and corporal temperature fall, asphyxia intervenes and causes death, or the symptoms peak at 3 days and the infant recovers DiffDx Neonatal pneumonia, birth-related asphyxia, group B streptococcal sepsis, cyanotic heart disease Treatment Supportive–O2, correction of acidosis, surfactant therapy

res·pi·ra·to·ry dis·tress syn·drome of the new·born

(res'pir-ă-tōr-ē dis-tres' sin'drōm nū'bōrn)
An acute lung condition of newborn babies, characterized by tachypnea, nasal flaring, and respiratory grunting. The condition occurs primarily in premature babies due to a lack of surfactant, causing alveolar collapse.
Synonym(s): hyaline membrane disease.

hyaline

glassy; pellucid.

hyaline body
hyaline cartilage
see hyaline cartilage.
hyaline cast
see urinary cast.
hyaline degeneration
see hyaline degeneration.
hyaline globules
composed of fibrin degradation products these contribute to the formation of microthrombi. Called also shock bodies.
hyaline membrane
composed of fibrin and cell debris, this membrane lines the alveoli when there has been severe damage to the alveolar epithelium. See also hyaline membrane (3).
hyaline membrane disease
a disorder of newborn animals, most commonly foals, characterized by the formation of a hyalin-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory passages. Neonates with this disease do not secrete adequate quantities of surfactant, which is secreted by type II alveolar epithelial cells, and decreases the surface tension of the fluids lining the alveoli and bronchioles. When the surface tension is kept low, air can pass through the fluids and into the alveoli. If the surface tension is not decreased by adequate supplies of surfactant, the alveoli cannot fill with air and there is partial or complete collapse of the lung (atelectasis). Thus the foal with hyaline membrane disease suffers from respiratory embarrassment with severe dyspnea. See also neonatal maladjustment syndrome.

Patient discussion about hyaline membrane disease

Q. HYALINE MEMBRANE DISEASE in pre-mature infants;what are the causes of it in pregnant women?

A. the cause of Hyaline Membrane disease is pre-mature birth. while the fetus develop, about in the 29th week a substance called surfactant is created in the lungs. this substance's function is to change the surface tension of the fluid in the lungs- therefore decreasing it's force. the surface tension tends to shrink the lungs and can cause the lungs to collapse. so a premature baby wouldn't be able to breath properly.

More discussions about hyaline membrane disease
References in periodicals archive ?
Although it is no longer the most common cause of death in premature infants, about 3% of neonates die of hyaline membrane disease.
Surfactant replacement therapy in newborns with hyaline membrane disease.
7%), followed by Hyaline membrane disease, MAS, congenital anomalies and infection.
The prevalence of Hyaline membrane disease in a study from Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan is from 12.
Progression from 'ground glass' density to 'white out' is a feature of hyaline membrane disease
Table 1: Age distribution of infective and non-infective lesions of the lungs LUNG PATHOLOGY (n=683) 0-1 1-12 1-5 5-15 MONTHS MONTHS YEARS YEARS n=117 n=280 n=155 n=131 INFECTIVE LESIONS n=382 Bronchopneumonia (182) 18 91 46 27 Interstitial Pneumonia (120) 13 81 18 8 TB (19) 1 4 8 6 Lobar pneumonia (19) 0 7 9 3 Congenital pneumonia (5) 5 0 0 0 Empyema (11) 0 5 5 1 Bronchiolitis (18) 0 9 7 2 Fungal infections (2) 0 2 0 0 Lung abscess (6) 0 2 2 2 NON INFECTIVE LESIONS n=303 IPH (124) 31 31 23 39 ARDS (57) 1 25 14 17 Pulmonary Edema (47) 1 15 11 20 Pleural Effusion (6) 0 3 3 0 Atelectasis (13) 6 2 4 1 Congestion (11) 0 2 4 5 Leukemic Infiltration (4) 0 1 2 1 Hyaline membrane Disease (20) 20 0 0 0 Meconium Aspiration (17) 17 0 0 0 Pulmonary Hypoplasia (4) 4 0 0 0 Table 2 SI.
Air embolus following pulmonary interstitial emphysema in hyaline membrane disease.
Birth asphyxia 37%, congenital anomalies as 26%, hyaline membrane disease was 13% as cause of death.
The major cause of death was Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) accounting to 36.