hyaline membrane disease


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hyaline

 [hi´ah-līn]
glassy; pellucid.
hyaline membrane disease a disorder of newborns, typically preterm, characterized by the formation of a hyalinlike membrane lining the terminal respiratory passages. Newborns with this disease do not secrete adequate quantities of surfactant, which is secreted by the epithelium of the alveoli and normally decreases the surface tension of the fluids lining the alveoli and bronchioles so that air can pass through the fluids and into the alveoli. If the surface tension is not kept low by adequate supplies of surfactant, the alveoli cannot fill with air and there is partial or complete collapse of the lung (atelectasis). Thus the newborn with hyaline membrane disease suffers from respiratory insufficiency with severe dyspnea and cyanosis. The condition is treated with surfactant instillation, oxygen, and positive pressure. See also respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn.

hyaline membrane disease

hyaline membrane disease

Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn Pediatrics A morbid condition linked to up to 50% of neonatal deaths in the US–40,000/yr Clinical Atelectasis, hypoventilation, hypotensive shock, pulmonary vasoconstriction, alveolar hypoperfusion, shut-down of cell metabolism; 60% of HMD affects infants < 28 wks of age; 5% in infants > 37 wks Pathogenesis Surfactant deficiency, related to prematurity–insufficient phosphatidyl glycerol, intrapartum hypoxia, 'subacute' fetal distress, acidosis, family predisposition, α1-antitrypsin deficiency, thyroxine, prolactin, cortisol, estrogen; HMD is more frequent in the 2nd twin delivered, twin-to-twin transfusion recipient infant, ♂ infants, children of diabetic mothers and in cesarean sections; a vicious cycle begins where ↓ surfactant results in atelectasis, ↓ ventilation–↑ pCO2, ↓ pH, ↓ O2 and hypoxia exacerbating the lack of surfactant, causing shock and more hypoxia Clinical Early onset of tachypnea, prominent grunting, intercostal retractions–air hunger, cyanosis; the infants may not respond to O2; blood pressure and corporal temperature fall, asphyxia intervenes and causes death, or the symptoms peak at 3 days and the infant recovers DiffDx Neonatal pneumonia, birth-related asphyxia, group B streptococcal sepsis, cyanotic heart disease Treatment Supportive–O2, correction of acidosis, surfactant therapy

res·pi·ra·to·ry dis·tress syn·drome of the new·born

(res'pir-ă-tōr-ē dis-tres' sin'drōm nū'bōrn)
An acute lung condition of newborn babies, characterized by tachypnea, nasal flaring, and respiratory grunting. The condition occurs primarily in premature babies due to a lack of surfactant, causing alveolar collapse.
Synonym(s): hyaline membrane disease.

Patient discussion about hyaline membrane disease

Q. HYALINE MEMBRANE DISEASE in pre-mature infants;what are the causes of it in pregnant women?

A. the cause of Hyaline Membrane disease is pre-mature birth. while the fetus develop, about in the 29th week a substance called surfactant is created in the lungs. this substance's function is to change the surface tension of the fluid in the lungs- therefore decreasing it's force. the surface tension tends to shrink the lungs and can cause the lungs to collapse. so a premature baby wouldn't be able to breath properly.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Meconium aspiration syndrome is the most common cause of respiratory distress among neonates born in Cheluvamba hospital followed by hyaline membrane disease. Neonatal respiratory distress had a male predilection.
of Cases Percentage Meconium Aspiration Syndrome 78 31.2% Hyaline Membrane Disease 65 26% Transient Tachypnoea 50 20% Pneumonia 25 10% Right Pulmonary Aplasia 1 0.4% Table 2.
Surfactant replacement therapy in newborns with hyaline membrane disease. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America.
Hyaline membrane disease was the second commonest cause of RD (25%) and it was found in preterm babies.
TTN was found to be the major cause of RD (35.7%), followed by Hyaline membrane disease, MAS, congenital anomalies and infection.
Hyaline membrane disease, pathogenesis and pathophysiology.
Apneic spells, hyaline membrane disease, short gestational period and exchange transfusions were significantly associated with increased risk of ROP.
Table 1: Age distribution of infective and non-infective lesions of the lungs LUNG PATHOLOGY (n=683) 0-1 1-12 1-5 5-15 MONTHS MONTHS YEARS YEARS n=117 n=280 n=155 n=131 INFECTIVE LESIONS n=382 Bronchopneumonia (182) 18 91 46 27 Interstitial Pneumonia (120) 13 81 18 8 TB (19) 1 4 8 6 Lobar pneumonia (19) 0 7 9 3 Congenital pneumonia (5) 5 0 0 0 Empyema (11) 0 5 5 1 Bronchiolitis (18) 0 9 7 2 Fungal infections (2) 0 2 0 0 Lung abscess (6) 0 2 2 2 NON INFECTIVE LESIONS n=303 IPH (124) 31 31 23 39 ARDS (57) 1 25 14 17 Pulmonary Edema (47) 1 15 11 20 Pleural Effusion (6) 0 3 3 0 Atelectasis (13) 6 2 4 1 Congestion (11) 0 2 4 5 Leukemic Infiltration (4) 0 1 2 1 Hyaline membrane Disease (20) 20 0 0 0 Meconium Aspiration (17) 17 0 0 0 Pulmonary Hypoplasia (4) 4 0 0 0 Table 2 SI.
Air embolus following pulmonary interstitial emphysema in hyaline membrane disease. Clin Radiol 27:77, 1976.
Birth asphyxia 37%, congenital anomalies as 26%, hyaline membrane disease was 13% as cause of death.
Epidemiology of hyaline membrane disease in the United States: analysis of national mortality statistics.