hyaline membrane


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membrane

 [mem´brān]
a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ. adj., adj mem´branous.
alveolar-capillary membrane (alveolocapillary membrane) a thin tissue barrier through which gases are exchanged between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Called also blood-air barrier and blood-gas barrier.
alveolodental membrane periodontium.
arachnoid membrane arachnoid.
basement membrane a sheet of amorphous extracellular material upon which the basal surfaces of epithelial cells rest; it is also associated with muscle cells, Schwann cells, fat cells, and capillaries, interposed between the cellular elements and the underlying connective tissue. It comprises two layers, the basal lamina and the reticular lamina, and is composed of Type IV collagen (which is unique to basement membranes), laminin, fibronectin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans.
basilar membrane the lower boundary of the scala media of the ear.
Bowman's membrane a thin layer of basement membrane between the outer layer of stratified epithelium and the substantia propria of the cornea.
Bruch's membrane the inner layer of the choroid, separating it from the pigmented layer of the retina.
cell membrane plasma membrane.
decidual m's (deciduous m's) decidua.
Descemet's membrane the posterior lining membrane of the cornea; it is a thin hyaline membrane between the substantia propria and the endothelial layer of the cornea.
diphtheritic membrane the peculiar false membrane characteristic of diphtheria, formed by coagulation necrosis.
drum membrane tympanic membrane.
epiretinal membrane a pathologic membrane partially covering the surface of the retina, probably originating chiefly from the retinal pigment epithelial and glial cells; membranes peripheral to the macula are generally asymptomatic, while those involving the macula or adjacent to it may cause reduction in vision, visual distortion, and diplopia.
extraembryonic m's those that protect the embryo or fetus and provide for its nutrition, respiration, and excretion; the yolk sac (umbilical vesicle), allantois, amnion, chorion, decidua, and placenta. Called also fetal membranes.
false membrane a membranous exudate, such as the diphtheritic membrane; called also neomembrane.
fenestrated membrane one of the perforated elastic sheets of the tunica intima and tunica media of arteries.
hemodialyzer membrane the semipermeable membrane that filters the blood in a hemodialyzer, commonly made of cuprophane, cellulose acetate, polyacrylonitrile, polymethyl methacrylate, or polysulfone.
Henle's membrane fenestrated membrane.
high efficiency membrane a hemodialyzer membrane that has clearance characteristics that increase progressively with increases in dialysis blood flow rates; this usually implies that the membrane is not a high flux membrane.
high flux membrane a hemodialyzer membrane that has a high permeability to fluids and solutes and thus a high rate of clearance of fluids and solutes composed of large molecules.
hyaline membrane
1. a membrane between the outer root sheath and inner fibrous layer of a hair follicle.
3. a homogeneous eosinophilic membrane lining alveolar ducts and alveoli, frequently found at autopsy of infants that were preterm. See also hyaline membrane disease.
hyoglossal membrane a fibrous lamina connecting the undersurface of the tongue with the hyoid bone.
impaired oral mucous membrane a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as disruptions of the lips and soft tissue of the oral cavity. Changes in the integrity and health of the oral mucous membrane can occur as a characteristic of such medical disorders as periodontal disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, oral cancer, and infection with herpes. Chemical irritants such as alcohol and tobacco can also adversely affect the oral mucous membrane, as can mechanical trauma due to broken teeth, poorly fitting dentures, and endotracheal intubation. Other etiologic factors include dehydration, mouth breathing, poor oral hygiene, radiation to the head or neck, and antineoplastic agents.

Preventive measures that can help maintain the health and integrity of the oral mucosa will depend on the cause. Routinely brushing and flossing the teeth during the day and at bedtime can help avoid dental caries and periodontal disease. Some patients may need instruction in the proper procedure for cleaning the teeth and removing debris and plaque, or they may need assistance in devising ways to cope with physical disabilities that make good oral hygiene difficult for them. Patients who are unconscious or unable to perform self-care activities should have mouth care as often as needed to keep the mouth clean and moist and avoid aspiration of debris and infectious microorganisms. Adequate hydration and a lip lubricant can help avoid alterations in the oral mucosa and promote comfort.
limiting membrane one that constitutes the border of some tissue or structure.
mucous membrane the membrane covered with epithelium that lines the tubular organs of the body.
Nasmyth's membrane primary cuticle.
nuclear membrane
1. either of the membranes, inner and outer, comprising the nuclear envelope.
olfactory membrane the olfactory portion of the mucous membrane lining the nasal fossa.
placental membrane the membrane that separates the fetal from the maternal blood in the placenta.
plasma membrane the membrane that encloses a cell; it is composed of phospholipids, glycolipids, cholesterol, and proteins. The primary structure is a lipid bilayer. Phospholipid molecules have an electrically charged “head” that attracts water and a hydrocarbon “tail” that repels water; they line up side by side in two opposing layers with their heads on the inner or outer surface of the membrane and their tails in the core, from which water is excluded. The other lipids affect the structural properties of the membrane. Proteins embedded in the membrane transport specific molecules across the membrane, act as hormone receptors, or perform other functions.
Reissner's membrane the thin anterior wall of the cochlear duct, separating it from the scala vestibuli.
membrane of round window secondary tympanic membrane.
Scarpa's membrane tympanic membrane, secondary.
semipermeable membrane one permitting passage through it of some but not all substances.
serous membrane the membrane lining the walls of the body cavities and enclosing the contained organs; it consists of mesothelium lying upon a connective tissue layer and it secretes a watery fluid.
synovial membrane the inner of the two layers of the articular capsule of a synovial joint; composed of loose connective tissue and having a free smooth surface that lines the joint cavity.
tympanic membrane see tympanic membrane.
tympanic membrane, secondary the membrane enclosing the round window; called also Scarpa's membrane.
unit membrane the trilaminar structure of all cellular membranes (such as the plasma membrane, nuclear membranes, mitochondrial membranes, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes) as they appear in electron micrographs. The biochemical structure is a lipid bilayer.
virginal membrane hymen.
vitelline membrane the external envelope of an ovum.
vitreous membrane
2. hyaline membrane (def. 1).
4. a delicate boundary layer investing the vitreous body.

hy·a·line mem·brane

1. the thin, clear basement membrane beneath certain epithelia;
2. Synonym(s): glassy membrane (2)

hyaline membrane

Etymology: Gk, hyalos, glass; L, membrana
a fibrous covering of the alveolar membranes in infants, caused by a lack of pulmonary surfactant associated with prematurity and low-birth-weight delivery. See also respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn.

hy·a·line mem·brane

(hī'ă-lēn mem'brān)
1. The thin, clear basement membrane beneath some epithelia.
2. Synonym(s): glassy membrane (2) .

Hyaline membrane

A thin layer of cells that line the lung.
Mentioned in: Surfactant

hyaline

glassy; pellucid.

hyaline body
hyaline cartilage
see hyaline cartilage.
hyaline cast
see urinary cast.
hyaline degeneration
see hyaline degeneration.
hyaline globules
composed of fibrin degradation products these contribute to the formation of microthrombi. Called also shock bodies.
hyaline membrane
composed of fibrin and cell debris, this membrane lines the alveoli when there has been severe damage to the alveolar epithelium. See also hyaline membrane (3).
hyaline membrane disease
a disorder of newborn animals, most commonly foals, characterized by the formation of a hyalin-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory passages. Neonates with this disease do not secrete adequate quantities of surfactant, which is secreted by type II alveolar epithelial cells, and decreases the surface tension of the fluids lining the alveoli and bronchioles. When the surface tension is kept low, air can pass through the fluids and into the alveoli. If the surface tension is not decreased by adequate supplies of surfactant, the alveoli cannot fill with air and there is partial or complete collapse of the lung (atelectasis). Thus the foal with hyaline membrane disease suffers from respiratory embarrassment with severe dyspnea. See also neonatal maladjustment syndrome.

membrane

a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ.

alveolocapillary membrane
a thin tissue barrier through which gases are exchanged between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries.
membrane-attack complex
complement components C5-C9 which form in terminal stage of either of the complement pathways and lead to cell lysis.
basilar membrane
the lower boundary of the scala media of the ear.
Bowman's membrane
a thin layer of basement membrane between the outer layer of stratified epithelium and the substantia propria of the cornea.
Bruch's membrane
the inner layer of the choroid, separating it from the pigmented layer of the retina.
membrane carrier
a mechanism in the cell membrane of epithelial cells in the intestinal mucosa which facilitates the rapid transport of for example glucose, into the cell and thus into the bloodstream.
cell membrane
plasma membrane (below).
membrane channels
see channel.
continuous membrane
the middle of the three membranes on the outside of the yolk of the hen egg.
cricothyroid membrane
the membrane connecting the thyroid cartilage to the cricoid cartilage. It is extensive in the horse and surgical incision through it allows access to the interior of the larynx.
Descemet's membrane
the posterior lining membrane of the cornea; it is a thin hyaline membrane between the substantia propria and the endothelial layer of the cornea.
drum membrane
tympanic membrane (below).
extraembryonic m's
those that protect the embryo or fetus and provide for its nutrition, respiration and excretion; the yolk sac (umbilical vesicle), allantois, amnion, chorion, decidua and placenta.
extravitelline membrane
the outermost of the three membranes on the outside of the yolk of the hen egg.
false membrane
a membrane similar to the pseudomembrane; fibrinous exudates readily loosened from underlying tissue, as in croupous or pseudomembranous inflammation.
fenestrated membrane
one of the perforated elastic sheets of the tunica intima and tunica media of arteries.
fetal m's
see fetal membranes. See also extraembryonic membranes (above).
fibrous membrane
the strong, fibrous support layer in a joint capsule.
Henle's membrane
see henle's membrane.
hyaline membrane
1. a membrane between the outer root sheath and inner fibrous layer of a hair follicle.
3. a homogeneous eosinophilic membrane lining alveolar ducts and alveoli, frequently found at necropsy in premature human infants. See also hyaline membrane disease.
hyoglossal membrane
a fibrous lamina connecting the under-surface of the tongue with the hyoid bone.
interosseous membrane
the membrane connecting the shaft of the fibula to the tibia.
limiting membrane
one that constitutes the border of some tissue or structure.
mucous membrane
the membrane covered with epithelium that lines many tubular organs of the body.
nictitating membrane
see membrana nictitans.
nuclear membrane
1. either of the membranes, inner and outer, comprising the nuclear envelope.
2. nuclear envelope.
olfactory membrane
the olfactory portion of the mucous membrane lining the nasal fossa.
periodontal membrane
perivitelline membrane
the innermost of the three layers on the outside of the yolk in the hen egg.
placental membrane
the membrane that separates the fetal from the maternal blood in the placenta.
plasma membrane
the membrane that encloses a cell; it is composed of phospholipids, glycolipids, cholesterol and proteins. The primary structure is a lipid bilayer. Phospholipid molecules have an electrically charged 'head' that attracts water and a hydrocarbon 'tail' that repels water; they line up side by side in two opposing layers, with their heads on the inner or outer surface of the membrane and their tails in the core, from which water is excluded. The other lipids affect the structural properties of the membrane. Proteins embedded in the membrane transport specific molecules across the membrane, act as hormone receptors, or perform other functions.
membrane potential
of a cell is the voltage difference across the cell membrane resulting from the differential concentrations of sodium and potassium on either side of the membrane. The resting potential, for example in a nerve cell, is altered by the temporary opening of the sodium channels in the membrane during an action potential, allowing a redistribution of the ions.
membrane proteins
the large number of proteins attached to a cell membrane. They include integral proteins, called also intrinsic, which are embedded in the phospholipid bi-layer of the cell membrane, and peripheral proteins, called also extrinsic, because they are loosely bound and can readily be extracted without damage to the cell membrane.
pupillary membrane
a vascular membrane which occupies the pupil in the embryo stage, completely covering the anterior surface of the lens but subsequently disappears. See also persistent pupillary membrane.
Reissner's membrane
the thin anterior wall of the cochlear duct, separating it from the scala vestibuli.
Scarpa's membrane
tympanic membrane, secondary.
semipermeable membrane
one permitting passage through it of some but not all substances.
serosal membrane
see serous membrane (below).
serous membrane
the membrane lining the walls of the body cavities and enclosing the contained organs; it consists of mesothelium lying upon a connective tissue layer and it secretes a watery fluid.
shell membrane
the membrane on the outside of the soft contents of the hen egg and just inside the shell. It consists of two membranes close together, with an air cell in between.
synovial membrane
see synovial membrane.
membrane transport
transport of electrolytes across semipermeable membranes with the aid of a transporter.
unit membrane
the trilaminar structure of all cellular membranes (such as the plasma membrane, nuclear membranes, mitochondrial membranes, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes) as they appear in electron micrographs. The biochemical structure is a lipid bilayer.
wing membrane
the membrane comprising the wing of the bat.
yolk membrane
the membrane investing the yolk of the hen egg; it includes (from the inside out) the perivitelline, the continuous and the extravitelline membranes.

Patient discussion about hyaline membrane

Q. HYALINE MEMBRANE DISEASE in pre-mature infants;what are the causes of it in pregnant women?

A. the cause of Hyaline Membrane disease is pre-mature birth. while the fetus develop, about in the 29th week a substance called surfactant is created in the lungs. this substance's function is to change the surface tension of the fluid in the lungs- therefore decreasing it's force. the surface tension tends to shrink the lungs and can cause the lungs to collapse. so a premature baby wouldn't be able to breath properly.

More discussions about hyaline membrane
References in periodicals archive ?
Follow-up films are not recommended in suspected hyaline membrane disease as they do not affect management and because the radiation dose is high
Hyaline membranes may be seen at this point and may reach a peak 4 to 5 days after the initial insult.
23 Our observation that viral antigen in alveolar cells often did not colocalize with foci of DAD and alveolar hyaline membrane formation likely reflects the rapid asynchronous kinetics of influenza viral replication and clearance.
Although a classic lung finding in congenital syphilis is pneumonia alba, this infant had extensive acute hyaline membrane disease, which is attributable to prematurity rather than syphilitic infection, and likely is responsible for the infant's death.
The most common histopathologic finding was diffuse alveolar damage comprising intraalveolar edema, hyaline membranes, fibrin, and hemorrhage.
The pathologic stages of ALI/ARDS or diffuse alveolar damage can be divided into 3 subsequent and somewhat overlapping phases: (1) exudative phase, characterized by neutrophilic infiltrate, hemorrhage, and the accumulation of a protein-rich pulmonary edema; (2) fibroproliferative phase, including chronic inflammation, early fibrosis, resorption of hyaline membranes, and neovascularization; and (3) recovery phase, seen in surviving patients.
7) Most pathologists are well familiar with the histologic findings of DAD from the autopsy suite, especially the acute form with hyaline membranes, although the organizing phase may not be as readily recognized.
5 (8-27) Cardiac massage in first 48 h 6 (50) Endotracheal intubation in first 48 h 11 (92) Respiratory distress syndrome 11 (92) Hyaline membranes disease 9 (75) Bradypneic syndrome 7 (58) Bronchopulmonary dysplasia 8 (67) Amniotic fluid aspiration 1 (8) Invasive mechanical ventilation, d, median (range) 12 (2-50) Endotracheal intubation during hospital stay 12 (100) Infectious complications Lung infection 5 (42) Other systemic infection 7 (58) Other complications Intraventricular hemorrhage 4 (33) Persistent artery canal 7 (58) Necrotizing enterocolitis 2 (17) Congenital malformations 1 (8) Hospitalization Stay in neonatology ward, d, [section] median (range) 113.
Pulmonary congestion with edema was note& but hyaline membranes had not formed (Figure A).