specificity

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specificity

 [spes″ĭ-fis´ĭ-te]
1. the quality of having a certain action, as of affecting only certain organisms or tissues, or reacting only with certain substances, as antibodies with certain antigens (antigen specificity).
2. diagnostic specificity; the probability that a person not having a disease will be correctly identified by a clinical test, i.e., the number of true negative results divided by the total number of all those without the disease (which is the sum of the number of true negative plus false positive results). See also sensitivity.
host specificity the natural adaptability of a particular parasite to a certain species or group of hosts.

spec·i·fic·i·ty

(spes'i-fis'i-tē), Do not confuse this word with sensitivity.
1. The condition or state of being specific, of having a fixed relation to a single cause or to a definite result; manifested in the relation of a disease to its pathogenic microorganism, of a reaction to a certain chemical union, or of an antibody to its antigen, or the reverse.
2. In clinical pathology and medical screening, the proportion of those tested with negative test results for the disease that the test is intended to reveal, that is, true negative results as a proportion of the total of true-negative and false-positive results. Compare: sensitivity (2).

specificity

/spec·i·fic·i·ty/ (spes″ĭ-fis´ĭ-te)
1. the quality or state of being specific.
2. the probability that a person who does not have a disease will be correctly identified by a clinical test.

specificity

[spes′əfis′itē]
Etymology: L, species, form, facere, to make
the quality of being distinctive. Kinds of specificity may include group, species, and type. See also diagnostic specificity.

specificity

Epidemiology The proportion of persons without disease who are correctly identified by a screening test or case definition as not having disease Immunology The avidity of an antibody for an antigen Physiology The degree of a ligand's affinity for a receptor

spec·i·fic·i·ty

(spes'i-fis'i-tē)
1. The condition or state of being specific, of having a fixed relation to a single cause or to a definite result; manifested in the relation of a disease to its pathogenic microorganism, of a reaction to a certain chemical union, or of an antibody to its antigen or the reverse.
2. clinical pathology The proportion of those who do not have a disease or condition and in whom a test intended to identify that disease or condition yields negative results.
Compare: sensitivity (2)

specificity

The characteristic of a binding site or receptor to be activated only by a single molecule or class of molecules.

specificity

the selective reactivity of an ANTIGEN and its corresponding ANTIBODY.

Specificity

A test's ability to detect only the disease in question.
Mentioned in: Tumor Markers

specificity

measure of the accuracy of a clinical test, i.e. how well it highlights false-negative results; calculated as the ratio of the number of true-negative results and the sum of the number of true-negative and false-positive results and expressed as a percentage; i.e. specificity = (true-negative/[true-negative + false-positive]) × 100; it does not record how accurately the test identifies positive cases (see sensitivity)

specificity 

The extent to which a test gives results that are free from false positives (i.e. people found to have the defect when they are actually free of it). The fewer the number of false positives, the greater is the specificity of the test. It is usually presented as the percentage of people truly identified as not defectives, or normal, referred to as true negatives, D (or correct reject), divided by the total number of not defectives or normal people tested. The total number includes all the true negatives, D, plus the false positives, B (or false alarm). Hence
See sensitivity.

spec·i·fic·i·ty

(spes'i-fis'i-tē) Do not confuse this word with sensitivity.
1. Condition or state of being specific, of having a fixed relation to a single cause or definite result; manifested in relation of disease to its pathogenic microorganism, of reaction to a chemical union, or an antibody to its antigen, or the reverse.
2. In clinical pathology and medical screening, proportion of those tested with negative test results for the disease the test is intended to reveal, i.e., true-negative results as a proportion of the total of true-negative and false-positive results.

specificity

the quality of having a certain action, as of affecting only certain organisms or tissues, or reacting only with certain substances, as antibodies with certain antigens (antigen specificity).

drug specificity
the degree to which the effects of a drug are due to the one pharmacological action.
host specificity
the restricted infectivity of a particular parasite to a certain species or group of hosts.
test specificity
the probability of a test correctly identifying those patients which are not infected or which do not have the specified condition. A fundamental parameter of any diagnostic test. See also sensitivity.

Patient discussion about specificity

Q. What Causes Specific Abdominal Pain? Everytime I go see a doctor when I have abdominal pains he tells me I probably have gastroenteritis. How does he know that it's not something else for instance, appendicitis, just by examining my abdomen?

A. whats the symptoms of ovarian cyst?

Q. Is Vitiligo caused due to any specific diet? Some people say that vitiligo is caused when we eat fish/chicken and curd together is it true??

A. No it is not write. Although the real causes of vitilgo are not fully understood by anyone. But Many dermatologist say that auto-immunity and second one is inheritance may involve in vitiligo (http://www.antivitiligo.com/).
Also some diet containing specific nutrients may be useful for handling vitiligo.

Q. HIV - does it infect specific Blood Types? A friend of mine joined the army and they took him to an experiment and infected him with HIV. But he was not infected- he said because he has a certain blood type. Is this true?

A. HIV, as all other viruses need specific cells,s surface proteins which called receptors,in case of HIV these receptors are found in certain WBCs that known as T-helper cells which named as T4 cells. All humans have these T4 cells but some people lack the receptor that necessary for virus attachment and pentration of the cell which leeds to the inablity of the virus to cause infection and become a target for the immune system. But they c can infect other suseptable people.

More discussions about specificity
References in periodicals archive ?
Morphological and host specificity evolution in coral symbiont barnacles (Balanomorpha: Pyrgomatidae) inferred from a multi-locus phylogeny.
His research involving these mites has addressed issues regarding patterns of host specificity, the genetic structure among host-associated populations, patterns of species richness, and the effects that the ectoparasitic larval stages have on their insect hosts, including their potential role in influencing host survival and reproduction.
In the absence of information on host specificity of Haemoproteus, the simplest explanation for these statistical interactions invokes genetic variation in resistance to Haemoproteus, or in host-specific patterns of infectivity by a shared pathogen, or both.
Therefore, when we discuss the host specificity of longicorns, we refer to reproductive-host specificity.
Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States.
3) What are some of the proximate mechanisms underlying host specificity, and in particular, can ants recognize different plant species and if so, how?
When the host specificity is broken, the process of introgression between figs could occur giving rise to new species, thereby contributing to the increased diversity of figs (Machado et al.
The host specificity of water hyacinth weevils and their controlling effects against water hyacint in Ningbo district.
The level of parasitemia was very low which means host specificity of freshwater fish trypanosomes is not so strict or absent among hosts similar fish families.
But first, the wasp must pass muster on a long list of requirements assuring its host specificity and environmental safety--starting with quarantine trials at Stoneville.
The case of the phylllosoma is thus different from that of general parasitism, in which host specificity is high.
Host specificity of Paraguayan bat flies is investigated; non-primary host associations are defined, reviewed, and explained in the context of disturbance and sampling contamination.