Biofilms are known for their high level of antimicrobie resistance and resilience to host defense mechanisms
In severely malnourished patients, both acquired immunity like lymphocyte functions as well as innate host defense mechanisms
like macrophages and granulocytes are affected.
Step-by-step laboratory methods and protocols are provided for investigating a variety of fungal and bacteria pathogens, as well as parasites, and for studying host defense mechanisms
marinus infections have been shown to affect the humoral and cellular host defense mechanisms
of bivalve molluscs.
Such critical evaluations are not easily done, as susceptibility tests do not take into account the normal host defense mechanisms