horsetails


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horsetails

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The Oxford classicist and bestselling historical novelist Harry Sidebottom, author of the Warrior of Rome series, has written the following blurb about the book: "Set in an unusual time and place, The Year of the Horsetails creates an exotic, fully imagined world combined with universal themes.
Among terrestrial plants, only the horsetails have been definitively shown to require Silicon as an essential, not simply beneficial, mineral nutrient (Epstein, 1999).
The aerial stems of Calamites were of determinate growth, like those of modern horsetails, despite their capacity for secondary xylem formation (Eggert, 1962).
Furthermore, there are no known hybrids of the enigmatic Equisetum bogotense, though this may be partly due to its lack of distributional overlap with any species besides the giant horsetails.
These observations suggest that hydraulic conductivity is a limiting factor for modern horsetails, even thought their evaporative surface area is decreased by the absence of exposed leafly lamina.
Similarly, Kelber & van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (1998) found that the extinct close relative of extant horsetails, Equisetites arenaceus, could propagate vegetatively via the adventitious rooting of shed branches.
Otherwise, there was large variation among different species (Table 4), with high levels in horsetails, lousewort, and bottle sedge.
For lichen, mosses, ferns, horsetail, and willows, mineral concentrations were estimated as mean values for all species within each group and each region.
The highest levels of Cl occurred in the aquatic plants; water lilly and horsetail (Table 2).
Calcium concentrations were low in lichens (18-27 retool/kg; Table 3), and in horsetail, willow, blueberry, and willow herb.
The fossilised remains of a giant horsetail or calamites, a species which grew up to 60ft tall in a hot and steamy atmosphere, was discovered by Warwick University students at Coventry's former Binley Colliery site, now known as Claybrookes Marsh.
But, while writing a paper on their findings, Prof Bowden came across some fascinating research by a botanist at Florida University describing a giant South American horsetail plant in northern Chile.