Pearl Index Obstetrics A formula that allows comparison of the efficacy of contraceptive methods, calculated as the pregnancy rate in population divided by 100 yrs of exposure. See Breast feeding, Coitus interruptus, Condoms, Morning-after pill, Contraception, Natural family planning, Norplant, Rhythm method, RU 486.
Pearl index–pregnancies/100 years of use
Physiologic 15-30/100 years: Coitus interruptus, natural family planning (rhythm or safe period), eg calendar method, evaluation of cervical mucosa or temperature, breast feeding
Chemical 15-20/100 years: Contraceptive sponges
Barrier 2-20/100 years: Intrauterine devices, condoms
Hormonal 1-3/100 years
Surgical << 1/100 years: Ligation of fallopian tubes, vas deferens
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Patient discussion about hormonal
Q. does the growth hormone have side effects and what are they?
A. Yes, it does, and not a few. They include, among others, pain in the joints, carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetes, pain at the injection site, problems with the thyroid gland, ear problems and many others. You may read more about side effects of growth hormone treatment (called Mecasermin or Somatropin) here: http://www.drugs.com/ppa/mecasermin.html
Q. what is the effect of hormones during pregnancy on a woman's temper?
A. Hormonal changes during pregnancy can indeedn cause mood changes, starting from anxiety or agitations to developing major clinical symptoms of depression. Pregnancy affects each woman differently.
Q. What types of hormonal changes caused by fibromyalgia? Fibromyalgia affects hormones because I feel pain in my back bone. What types of hormonal changes caused by fibromyalgia?
A. Have you ever checked your back pain with a doctor? It may or may not be due to fibromyalgia. Low serotonin levels, low growth hormone levels, and low levels of neuropeptide Y, a component of the feel-good hormone neurotransmitter norepinephrine have been associated with fibromyalgia. Elevated levels of substance P acts as a neurotransmitter and signals the body to experience pain. These pains have also been observed in the spinal cord of fibromyalgia patients.More discussions about hormonal
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