horizontal transmission


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

transmission

 [trans-mish´un]
1. a passage or transfer, as of a disease from one individual to another, or of neural impulses from one neuron to another.
2. the communication of inheritable qualities from parent to offspring.
horizontal transmission the spread of an infectious agent from one individual to another, usually through contact with bodily excretions or fluids, such as sputum or blood, that contain the agent.
vertical transmission transmission from one generation to another. The term is restricted by some to genetic transmission and extended by others to include also transmission of infection from one generation to the next, as by milk or through the placenta.

hor·i·zon·tal trans·mis·sion

transmission of infectious agents from an infected individual to a susceptible contemporary, in contradistinction to vertical transmission.

horizontal transmission

the spread of an infectious agent from one person or group to another, usually through contact with contaminated material, such as sputum or feces.

horizontal transmission

Epidemiology The transmission of an infection from one to another person of the same generation in the same population. Cf Hereditary transmission, Vertical transmission.

hor·i·zon·tal trans·mis·sion

(hōr'i-zon'tăl trans-mish'ŭn)
Transmission of infectious agents from an infected individual to a susceptible contemporary, in contradistinction to vertical transmission.

hor·i·zon·tal trans·mis·sion

(hōr'i-zon'tăl trans-mish'ŭn)
Transmission of infectious agents from an infected individual to a susceptible contemporary.

transmission

1. transfer, as of an infection from one patient to another.
2. of nervous impulses. See neuromuscular transmission.
3. heredity.

airborne transmission
spread of infection by droplet nuclei or dust through the air. Without the intervention of winds or drafts the distance over which airborne infection takes place is short, say 10 to 20 feet.
arthropod transmission
by insect, either mechanically via a contaminated proboscis or feet, or biologically when there is growth or replication of the organism in the arthropod. See also trans-stadial.
biological transmission
involving a biological process, e.g. passing a stage of development of the infecting agent in an intermediate host. Opposite to mechanical transmission.
colostral transmission
a form of vertical transmission via successive generations.
contact transmission
the disease agent is transferred directly by biting, sucking, chewing or indirectly by inhalation of droplets, drinking of contaminated water, traveling in contaminated vehicles.
cyclopropagative transmission
the agent undergoes both development and multiplication in the transmitting vehicle.
developmental transmission
the agent undergoes some development in the transmission vehicle.
fecal-oral transmission
the infectious agent is shed by the infected host in feces and acquired by the susceptible host through ingestion of contamined material.
horizontal transmission
lateral spread to others in the same group and at the same time; spread to contemporaries.
mechanical transmission
the transmitter is not infected in that tissues are not invaded and the agent does not multiply.
propagative transmission
the agent multiplies in the transmission vehicle.
vector transmission
see vector.
vertical transmission
from one generation to the next, perhaps transovarially or by intrauterine infection of the fetus. Some retroviruses are transmitted in the germ line, i.e. their genetic material is integrated into the DNA of either the ovum or sperm.
References in periodicals archive ?
The reason for limited horizontal transmission in our study could be low-level virus shedding by the initially infected cats.
However, horizontal transmission between cats was not observed, although infected cats had been introduced into a large cat population that had other viral and bacterial infections and lived under stressful conditions.
Although there are reports of outbreaks linked to contaminated laryngoscopes, [7] it often remains difficult to prove conclusively that contaminated laryngoscope blades are responsible for an outbreak or for horizontal transmission of infection.
The clades can be separated into two types according to the transmission mechanisms of bacteria within them: first, entirely horizontal transmission or a mix of horizontal and vertical transmission; and second, horizontal transmission that is not epidemiologically important.
In the second type of clade, vertical transmission rates far exceed those of horizontal transmission.
Male-killing, a trait that evolves in bacteria already maternally inherited in arthropods, can occur if the ancestral agent is obligately vertically transmitted or a mix of vertical and horizontal transmission is present.
These findings are consistent with horizontal transmission and transmission through fighting between adult male rodents.
Given the horizontal transmission of hantavirus within reservoir populations, increasing population densities should result in increased rodent-to-rodent contact, opportunities for virus transmission (to susceptible mice), and overall incidence and cumulative prevalence of infection within host populations.

Full browser ?