hoof

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hoof

(ho͝of, ho͞of)
n. pl. hooves (ho͝ovz, ho͞ovz) or hoofs
a. The horny sheath covering the toes or lower part of the foot of a mammal of the orders Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla, such as a horse, ox, or deer.
b. The foot of such an animal, especially a horse.

hoof

a horny casing of the toe produced by hardened epidermal cuticle (keratin), found particularly in UNGULATES.

hoof

the horny covering of the digit of ungulates. Consists of a wall, a sole and in the horse reflections of the wall which enclose a triangular frog. The hoof is attached to the underlying soft tissues by lamellae which interdigitate with similar lamellae in the soft tissues. The wall is composed of many minute horn tubes united by intertubular horn produced by a germinative layer at the coronary band where the skin and horn join. A thin, narrow band of soft, very light-colored horn called periople forms a flexible union between wall and skin. The wall is that part of the hoof extending from the coronet to the sole. It grows from the coronet and in horses takes about 1 year to reach the sole at the toe and some months fewer at the heel. The wall and the sole join at a visible band called the white line though this is often yellowish. These various parts of the hoof are described in more detail under their individual headings. See also cleat.

hoof abscess
results usually from a nailprick of the sole or from a cracked sole. The cavity of the abscess cannot be large because of the rigid nature of the tissues. Spread from the original site is via the potential space between the sensitive laminae and the hoof and eventually surfaces at the coronet with pus discharging from a sinus there. Causes severe lameness, and tetanus is a common accompaniment.
hoof avulsion
in cattle and horses it is usually the result of trauma and carries a very poor prognosis.
hoof block
see digital nerve block.
hoof congenital absence
with all four limbs affected, recorded in calves.
hoof cutters
pincer-like instruments with one blade sharp and chisel-pointed, the other square and acting as a block for the other to cut against. The good implements have a double-scissor action and detachable blades.
hoof erosion
occurs in association with interdigital dermatitis in cattle and contributes to lameness.
hoof lameness
lameness due to pain in the hoof; detected by tapping with a hammer or pinching with a hoof tester.
hoof oil
a mixture of 20 parts neat's-foot oil and 1 part Stockholm tar; used to prevent a horse's hooves from becoming dry and brittle.
hoof overgrowth
in old animals kept on very soft pasture or bedding; the hoof wall elongates and will eventually curl under so that the patient is walking on hoof wall instead of sole.
hoof pick
a pointed appliance in various shapes used to pick dirt and stones out of the grooves in the sole of a horse's hoof.
hoof slough
the wall and sole are detached from the sensitive laminae and the coronet and falls off. When the detachment is partial, the hoof is retained but is not viable and the patient gives the appearance of wearing slippers.
hoof tester
shaped like a pair of large pincers. One of the blades is placed on apparently normal hoof and the other on the part to be tested. If there is a flinch response when the handles are squeezed this is taken as an indication of pain at one of the pressure sites.
hoof ulcer
see pododermatitis circumscripta.
worn hoof
excessive wear, e.g. that which occurs in pastured cows forced to walk twice daily along races floored with recently paved non-slip concrete; may expose sensitive tissue, causing herd level lameness in all four limbs.
References in periodicals archive ?
Once your horse's feet are balanced and symmetrical, your farrier can fit shoes to the hoofs if they are necessary.
In these cases a vitamin or dietary supplement may restore the hoofs to normal.
When the hoof is excessively worn down, not much can be done in one trimming; and when the hoof is so long that the hoofwall has bent, or flared, it may take two or three trims to bring the foot back to normal.
In an age where we have come to expect that our needs will be gratified instantly, many people expect an instant solution to their horse's hoof or balance problems.
Plastic shoes transmit much less concussion to the hoof than metal, and are lighter.
Foundered horses are sometimes treated with a handmade shoe which puts pressure on the frog, restoring the coffin bone to its proper position inside the hoof.
Riding on the road or roadside, riding on hard ground during dry months, riding on sandy soil, and strenuous daily workouts can all wear the hoof down too quickly, however.
Extra length also makes it easier for the hoofwall to split, and believe it or not, the wall that reaches out beyond the sole and the wall partway up the hoof can bend from the constant pressure.
The natural shape of a horse's hoof varies quite a bit.
Sometimes the hoof will grow out more on the inside or outside, making one side look normal, while the other side looks belled or flared.
When the hoof loses it's symmetry so that one side of the hoof has more surface area than the other, the side which has more contact with the ground will "hang up" for just a fraction of a second when the foot is lifted.
This means that the horse's weight will come down more on one side of the hoof than the other which results in one side receiving more concussion than it should.