Unlike previous research, we found that the diet of female and male eastern pipistrelles predominately consisted of Homopterans
and Dipterans, respectively (Table I).
The predator protection hypothesis has also been invoked to explain temporal variation in benefit to homopterans
sodalis had over 70% of their diets composed of lepidopterans, homopterans
, and coleopterans (Table 1).
In that study, important foods included beetles (Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae--spotted cucumber beetle, Carabidae, and unidentified Coleoptera), hemipterans (a green Pentatomidae--stinkbug, Acrosternon hilare), hymenopterans (Formicidae and Ichneumonidae), homopterans
(Cicadellidae), and lepidopterans.
All Homoptera are herbivorous, and many homopterans
feed on phloem which is high in water and carbohydrates but low in other nutrients including N.
During the peak of cicada abundance, bats consumed significantly more homopterans
(mainly cicadas) than during a non-cicada year.
Strains 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43-S-d and 23-O-to, originally isolated from homopterans
, showed RDel mortalities (mean of the mortality percentages of all three to four replicates) of 74, 96, 44 and 82 % respectively while HD-137, HD-1 and Bt israelensis showed 19, 83 and 95 % RDel mortalities, respectively (Table 1).
on branches were Cicadellidae followed by Aphididae.
Lepidopterans, hemipterans and homopterans
accounted for the remainder (7.
Phytophagous insects, such as homopterans
and lepidopterous larvae, were not affected by carabid exclusion and removal.
Arthropods too large for geckos to ingest were excluded, as were many potentially consumable insects such as coleopterans, isopods, homopterans
(other than leaf and plant hoppers), hymenopterans, and other taxa that the geckos generally ignored while foraging.
They are generally predators, although some also feed on sugary nectars, fruit, and the secretions of certain homopterans