Weighting against homoplasy
improves phylogenetic analysis of morphological data sets.
This is clear evidence of allelic homoplasy
in the marker that could confound interpretation of data sets.
Convergent and parallel evolutionary changes (homoplasy
) in tadpole morphology further obscure relationships among divergence time and degree of metamorphosis (Roelants et al., 2011).
Wimberger, 1993, "The Usefulness of Behavior for Phylogeny Estimation: Levels of Homoplasy
in Behavioral and Morphological Characters", Evolution, vol.
Additionally, gene loci should have a limited amount of extraneous "noise" that can be created by assay-specific genotype errors (for instance, size homoplasy
, null alleles, or allele dropout).
These mismatches violate the fundamental cladistic assumption that history follows a branching process, but can be explained by homoplasy
(convergent evolution), the horizontal "trace" of the homology-homoplasy yin-yang of phylogenetic signal.
However, before utilizing it in such way, determining the basic properties of this marker for phylogenetic usefulness is warranted, especially by checking the level of homoplasy
that may blur phylogenetic signals.
To what extent this is a facultative or obligate habit among different species of anthomyiids is an open question, but it has evidently been attained through homoplasy
in various anthomyiid lineages.
: Multiple gains and losses of vibrational sounding in cryptine wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).