Because conflicting clades with exceptional long temporal gaps may result either from incompleteness of the fossil record or from the effect of MCs, these clades are rejected only after evidence suggesting the homoplastic
nature of the characters that support them is gathered.
Nonetheless, these characters are homoplastic
within the infraorder (see Wheeler et al.
Regardless of this disparity, the monocots are an ancient group and a substantial number of homoplastic
reversals undoubtedly have occurred in their DNA sequences.
A number of characters vary at too low a level to be useful (are highly homoplastic
at tribal level), for instance pollen grain size and shape, number of infractectum layers and their thicknesses, extent and depth of cavea, spine shape and internal structure, number and size of abporal, interporal, paraporal and poral lacunae, and internal endexine surface.
If the Solifugae are closely related to the Pseudoscorpiones (as suggested above), the similarity of the testis histology and the aflagellate sperm must be seen as homoplastic
Given the potential variability caused by the above phenomenon, known pheromone components are generally less homoplastic
than the putative pheromone components.
The presence or absence of a flange is homoplastic
, evolving several times in this analysis.
The output file produced by Mauve was parsed by using a custom Perl script to retrieve multiple aligned sequences for indel loci that fulfilled the following criteria: 1) the loci should exist in all compared strains, 2) only 2 allelic variants should exist, 3) at least 25 bp of sequences lacking other indels should flank identified loci, 4) indels should be 5- to 200-bp long, and 5) direct repeated sequences of substantial length should not be present at indel loci because such sequences may increase the risk for homoplastic
If these arguments about phylogeny and homology are correct, then the parallel evolution of plasticity in skeletal growth would be one of few examples in which adaptive plasticity for a homoplastic
trait is itself homoplastic
(Holloway et al.
Using MacClade, the number of gains of particular character states does not necessarily give an accurate account of the total number of homoplastic
1-2), which is also a diagnostic feature for Synoeca in Richards (1978); and nest entrance formed by gap in construction (character 34, state 1; homoplastic
On the use of the term homology in modem zoology, and the distinction between homogenetic and homoplastic