homologous chromosomes


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to homologous chromosomes: nonhomologous chromosomes

ho·mol·o·gous chro·mo·somes

members of a single pair of chromosomes.

homologous chromosomes

Etymology: Gk, homos, same, chroma color, soma body
any two chromosomes in a diploid somatic cell that are identical in size, shape, and gene loci. In humans there are 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes, with 1 member of each pair derived from the mother and the other from the father.

ho·mol·o·gous chro·mo·somes

(hŏ-mol'ŏ-gŭs krō'mŏ-sōmz)
Members of a single pair of chromosomes.

homologous chromosomes

Chromosomes with the same genetic loci that occur in pairs, one derived from the mother and one from the father.

homologous chromosomes

those CHROMOSOMES containing identical genetic loci although possibly different allelic forms. In DIPLOID organisms the chromosomes occur in homologous pairs, one member of each pair from a different parent, the pair becoming separated during MEIOSIS and giving rise to genetic SEGREGATION.
References in periodicals archive ?
Viewed through the light microscope, the karyotype and individual chromosomes may be described in traditional morphological terms, but the visible features of chromosomes are few, and the level of description has changed little since Sutton (1903) remarked that homologous chromosomes were "those that correspond in size.
the reciprocal exchange of parts of the chromatids of the homologous chromosomes - can take place, and it ensures that bivalents are formed from the homologous parental chromosomes and are held together by chiasmata until first meiotic division.
However, it is likely that homologous chromosomes or chromosome segments are identified and contact established between them during or before early meiotic prophase.
DNA sequences that serve the mutual recognition of homologous chromosomes probably reside in autonomously functioning individual sites (e.
The MER2 product seems, however, not to be a structural component of the synaptonemal complex, but is suggested to play a role in the initiation of genetic exchange; in MER2 mutants homologous chromosomes fail to synapse and the alignment of homologous chromosomes is reduced (Rockmill et al.
Waines (1976) argued for the evolutionary significance of possessing chromosome pairing-regulating genes in diploid species, and suggested that genes preventing pairing between all but fully homologous chromosomes might function as a genetic isolation mechanism of taxa.
Pairing competition between identical and homologous chromosomes in diploid and tetraploid cells of rye telotrisomic plants.
Conjugation of homologous chromosomes in the genus hybrids Triticum x Aegilops and species hybrids of Aegilops.