homologous chromosome


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homologous chromosome

One of a pair of chromosomes that contain genes for the same traits; one is maternal in origin, the other paternal.
See also: chromosome
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
The synaptonemal complex is a unique meiosis specific structure which is critical for chiasma (locations of crossover) formation, homologous chromosome binding, and chromosome segregation [54].
Additive effects for seed cotton yield were positive and significantly different than zero for all cultivars and CS-B02; however, no chromosome from 3-79 had additive effects significantly greater than additive effects of the homologous chromosome in TM-1.
Viewed through the light microscope, the karyotype and individual chromosomes may be described in traditional morphological terms, but the visible features of chromosomes are few, and the level of description has changed little since Sutton (1903) remarked that homologous chromosomes were "those that correspond in size."
Establishing these markers for the apospory gene will be a valuable aid to positioning other markers near the apomixis gene locus and could be useful in tracking the homologous chromosomes in meiotic cells during aposporous embryo sac development.
Different lengths of the same arm (and band/locus, where applicable) from homologous chromosomes were combined to mean values and then represented in the haploid complement of the idiogram.
The main cause of the sterility of mules and hinnies is probably related to failure of pairing of homologous chromosomes at meiosis during spermatogenesis (Wodsedalek, 1966; Taylor and Short, 1973; Chandley et al., 1974; 1975).
Humans are diploid organisms; they have paired homologous chromosomes in their somatic cells, which contain two copies of each gene.
Whole-genome sequencing generates a single consensus sequence without assigning variants to specific homologous chromosomes.
Homologous chromosomes were arranged on the basis of morphological similarity (size, position of centromere and secondary constriction).
This demonstration further reinforces the idea that the synapse of homologous chromosomes is a hallmark of meiosis because the bi-orientation of nonsister kinetochores (two kinetochores from homologous chromosomes) results in the physical separation of the homologous chromosomes (Luo, 2009).
At this point the homologous chromosomes are separated, and the cell divides, giving the intermediate cells two versions of a chromosome from each homologous pair.
Each of the homologous chromosomes has 2 alpha genes; thus, there are 4 functional alpha genes in total.