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; history, observation, examination mnemonic for assessment of musculoskeletal symptoms (Table 1)
Table 1: The history, observation, examination (HOE) model for assessment of patients with musculoskeletal symptoms
HistoryBiographical information
General medical history (such as duration of symptoms/disease, medications, disease activity markers)
Presenting symptoms – pain maps, patient-completed baseline health outcome measures)
ObservationNon-weight-bearingMusculoskeletal system/disease state:
  • Limb alignment

  • Joint/soft-tissue swelling

  • Dermal signs

Presenting complaint:
  • Dimensions and numbers of visible lesions

  • Record of tender/swollen joints

Footwear assessment
  • Suitability

  • Wear patterns

  • Distortion of uppers

Weight-bearingLimb alignment
  • Joint/limb segment alignment

  • Foot posture at relaxed calcaneal stance

Comparison with non-weight-bearing observations
Observation of gait
ExaminationProvocation of symptoms/pain
  • Palpation

  • Active motion

  • Passive motion

Systematic palpation and movement of structures, from proximal to distal
  • Bony structures

  • Joints

  • Soft tissues

  • Radiograph

  • Magnetic resonance imaging

  • HRUS

HRUS, high-resolution ultrasound.


n an angled instrument with the broad dimension of its blade perpendicular to the axis of the shank of the shaft.
References in periodicals archive ?
Keith Allen, representing Hoe, was a homeless heroin user at the time of the burglary.
For weeding beds and borders choose a cutting hoe which does exactly what is says, cuts weeds.
As addressed earlier, Meadows asked Hoe to pen his biography and made himself available for hours of interviews.
Soms verstaan ek nie mooi hoe die dinge georganiseerd geraak het nie.
There is nothing complicated about making the Victory Hoe.
Knight, currently without a club, started the row by tweeting: "Hoes have to know 80 percent of men have a sat nav hoe alert device programmed into our brains you can't fool us lol.
When it arrives at Samphire Hoe, which was constructed from the spoil extracted from below the Channel during construction of the tunnel, the Olympic Torch will be carried by torchbearers on nature trails around the site.
Most of these hoe attachments are equipped with hydraulic stabilizers and include discrete dipper sticks and booms attached to the mounting plate through a kingpost.
If you spend a substantial amount of time moving hoes, you should consider the Master stem from Gardener System from Irrigro, a small Ontario, Canada -based company that is perfect for home projects.
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