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Related to hippurate: hippurate hydrolysis


A salt or ester of hippuric acid.
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Specifically, diet 1 resulted in higher concentration of urinary biomarkers from individual healthy foods like hippurate (marker of fruit and vegetable consumption), (N-acetyl-)S'-methyl-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (cruciferous vegetables), dimethylamine and TMAO (fish), and 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine (oily fish and chicken).
Compared with BP group, 23 metabolites were significantly altered in SD group: creatinine, azelaic acid, protocatechuic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid were upregulated, yet lactate, glycolic acid, alanine, nicotinic acid, phenylacetic acid, glycine, 4-deoxyerythronic acid, pipecolic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid, nicotinamide, uracil, threonic acid, suberic acid, putrescine, citric acid, hippurate, lysine, urate, and ascorbic acid were downregulated in SD group as shown in the heat map (Figure 5(a)).
Methenamine salts, either in the form of methenamine mandelate or methenamine hippurate, are another group of antimicrobials used in the past for control or prevention of UTIs and CAUTIs [41].
Finally, 2 genomic islands, 1 containing the hippurate hydrolysis A and B gene toxin-antitoxin system, as well as other hypothetical genes, and 1 containing mostly uncharacterized genes, were found to be unique to the South Bronx strain.
The results showed that aspartate, betaine, choline, cysteine, ethanol, and threonine were increased over 2-fold in the muscle; propionate and trimethylamine were increased over 2-fold in the plasma; and alanine, glycerol, inosine, lactate, and pyruvate were increased over 2-fold and acetoacetate, arginine, citrulline, creatine, glutamine, glutarate, hippurate, lysine, methionine, phenylacetylglycine, taurine, trigonelline, trimethylamine, and trimethylamine N-oxide were decreased below 0.5-fold in the urine (Figure 1).
Glycolate, hippurate, and trigonelline were important to distinguish the patients prone to OA progression from those who were not prone (42).
Methenamine hippurate has been studied for use in both bacteriuria and symptomatic CA-UTIs and has shown some benefit in preventing symptomatic CA-UTIs in patients without any renal tract abnormalities (relative risk [RR] 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.89), as well as bacteriuria (RR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.83); (11) however, patients with a history of renal tract abnormalities were at greater risk for symptomatic UTIs (RR 1.54; 95% CI 0.38-6.20) and bacteriuria (RR 1.29; 95% CI 0.54-3.07).
Progression of atherosclerosis - cardiovascular disease - was assessed by metabolic changes (levels of carnitine and hippurate), lipid profile, blood pressure and levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs).
Compared with the balanced constitution, the contents of lactate (FA) and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) are lower while the contents of glutamine, glucose, phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) are higher in serum of Yang deficiency constitution, and the content of creatinine is lower while the contents of lactate, DMA, citrate, and hippurate are higher in the urine of Yang deficiency constitution.
Among the most studied ones is hippurate which both is a marker of renal function and can be produced by gut microbiota as well [36].