In ankle valgus the callosity is under the medial malleolus and in hindfoot valgus under the talar head.
Hindfoot valgus is due to muscle imbalance, with shortening of the Achilles tendon, and a mid-foot break.
Orthopaedic problems for each neurological level Level % Deformity Thoracic (paraplegic) 23 Scoliosis Kyphosis Equinus Mid-lumbar (L3,4) 30 Hip dislocation Internal and external tibial torsion Clubfoot Congenital vertical talus Ankle and hindfoot valgus Low lumbar/calcaneus (L5) 17 Calcaneus Ankle valgus Hindfoot valgus Sacral/'normal' (S1) 30 Cavovarus foot
Other common findings associated with PTT dysfunction include hindfoot valgus deformity and forefoot abduction.
13,18) This muscle functions as a plantar flexor and powerful inverter of the foot, it also provides support to the medial longitudinal arch, and stabilizes against hindfoot valgus and forefoot abduction deformities.
Eng & Plerrynowski The static positions of forefoot varus (1994) and hindfoot valgus
can be modified by a soft orthotic and alter movement at the knee and foot in the transverse and frontal planes during dynamic mobility.
They are used to help control ankle pronation (eversion, or rolling in) and hindfoot valgus
(rolling out) position.
Typically the physical examination of tibialis posterior dysfunction patients reveals a flatfoot deformity that consists of flattening of the medial longitudinal arch, hindfoot valgus, and abduction of the midfoot on the hindfoot.
Stage 4: consists of a stage 3 deformity with evidence of associated tibiotalar asymmetry because of the prolonged hindfoot valgus deformity.