high output heart failure


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high output heart failure

Heart failure that occurs in spite of high cardiac output, for example, in severe anemia, thyrotoxicosis, arteriovenous fistulae, or other diseases.
See also: failure

heart failure

inability of the heart to maintain a circulation sufficient to meet the body's needs; most often applied to myocardial failure affecting the right or left ventricle.

acute heart failure
sudden cardiac arrest such as occurs in anesthetic death and cardiac myopathy of various kinds. It causes death by acute anoxia of tissues especially brain. The clinical syndrome varies between a brief convulsion and the development of pulmonary edema.
backward heart failure
a concept of heart failure emphasizing the contribution of passive engorgement of the systemic venous system as a cause.
congestive heart failure (CHF)
that which occurs as a result of impaired pumping capability of the heart and is associated with abnormal retention of water and sodium. The condition ranges from mild congestion with few symptoms to life-threatening fluid overload and total heart failure.
CHF results in an inadequate supply of blood and oxygen to the body's cells. The decreased cardiac output causes an increase in the blood volume within the vascular system. Congestion within the blood vessels interferes with the movement of body fluids in and out of the various fluid compartments, and they accumulate in the tissue spaces, causing edema.
There are three general kinds of pathological conditions that can bring about CHF: (1) ventricular failure, in which the contractions of the ventricles become weak and ineffective, as in myocardial ischemia from coronary artery disease; (2) mechanical failure of the ventricles to fill with blood during the diastole phase of the cardiac cycle, which can occur when the mitral valve is narrowed or when there is an accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac (cardiac tamponade) pressing against the ventricles, preventing them from accepting a full load of blood; and (3) an overload of blood in the ventricles during the systole phase of the cycle. High blood pressure, aortic stenosis and aortic valvular regurgitation are some of the conditions that can cause ventricular overload.
decompensated heart failure
see congestive heart failure (above).
forward heart failure
a concept of heart failure emphasizing the inadequacy of cardiac output as the primary cause and considering venous distention to be secondary.
high output heart failure
that in which cardiac output remains high, associated with anemia, emphysema, etc.
left-sided heart failure, left ventricular heart failure
failure of the left ventricle to maintain a normal output of blood. Since the left ventricle does not empty completely, it cannot accept blood returning from the lungs via the pulmonary veins. The pulmonary veins become engorged and fluid seeps out through the veins and collects in the pleural cavity. Pulmonary edema and pleural effusion result. In many cases heart failure begins on the left side and eventually involves both sides of the heart.
low-output heart failure
that in which cardiac output is diminished, associated with cardiovascular diseases.
right-sided heart failure, right ventricular heart failure
failure of proper functioning of the right ventricle, with subsequent engorgement of the systemic veins, producing pitting edema, enlargement of the liver, and ascites.
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