hiatal hernia


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hernia

 [her´ne-ah]
the abnormal protrusion of part of an organ or tissue through the structures normally containing it. adj., adj her´nial. A weak spot or other abnormal opening in a body wall permits part of the organ to bulge through. A hernia may develop in various parts of the body, most commonly in the region of the abdomen (abdominal hernia), and may be either acquired or congenital. An old popular term for hernia is rupture, but this term is misleading because it suggests tearing and nothing is torn in a hernia. Although various supports and trusses can be tried in an effort to contain the hernia, the best treatment for this condition is herniorrhaphy, surgical repair of the weakness in the muscle wall through which the hernia protrudes.
Bochdalek's hernia congenital posterolateral diaphragmatic hernia, with extrusion of bowel and other abdominal viscera into the thorax; due to failure of closure of the pleuroperitoneal hiatus.
cerebral hernia (hernia ce´rebri) protrusion of brain substance through a defect in the skull.
crural hernia femoral hernia.
diaphragmatic hernia see diaphragmatic hernia.
fat hernia hernial protrusion of peritoneal fat through the abdominal wall.
femoral hernia protrusion of a loop of intestine into the femoral canal, a tubular passageway that carries nerves and blood vessels to the thigh; this type occurs more often in women than in men. Called also crural hernia and femorocele.
hiatal hernia (hiatus hernia) protrusion of a structure, often a portion of the stomach, through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm; see diaphragmatic hernia.
Holthouse's hernia an inguinal hernia that has turned outward into the groin.
incarcerated hernia a hernia so occluded that it cannot be returned by manipulation; it may or may not become strangulated. Called also irreducible hernia.
incisional hernia hernia after operation at the site of the surgical incision, owing to improper healing or to excessive strain on the healing tissue; such strain may be caused by excessive muscular effort, such as that involved in lifting or severe coughing, or by obesity, which creates additional pressure on the weakened area.
inguinal hernia hernia occurring in the groin, or inguen, where the abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs. It is often the result of increased pressure within the abdomen, whether due to lifting, coughing, straining, or accident. Inguinal hernia accounts for about 75 per cent of all hernias.

A sac formed from the peritoneum and containing a portion of the intestine or omentum, or both, pushes either directly outward through the weakest point in the abdominal wall (direct hernia) or downward at an angle into the inguinal canal (indirect hernia). Indirect inguinal hernia (the common form) occurs more often in males because it follows the tract that develops when the testes descend into the scrotum before birth, and the hernia itself may descend into the scrotum. In the female, the hernia follows the course of the round ligament of the uterus.

Inguinal hernia begins usually as a small breakthrough. It may be hardly noticeable, appearing as a soft lump under the skin, no larger than a marble, and there may be little pain. As time passes, the pressure of the contents of the abdomen against the weak abdominal wall may increase the size of the opening and, accordingly, the size of the lump formed by the hernia. In the early stages, an inguinal hernia is usually reducible—it can be pushed gently back into its normal place. Inguinal hernia usually requires herniorrhaphy.
intra-abdominal hernia (intraperitoneal hernia) a congenital anomaly of intestinal positioning, occurring within the abdomen, in which a portion of bowel protrudes through a defect in the peritoneum or, as a result of abnormal rotation of the intestine during embryonic development, becomes trapped in a sac of peritoneum.
irreducible hernia incarcerated hernia.
mesocolic hernia an intra-abdominal hernia in which the small intestine rotates incompletely during development and becomes trapped within the mesentery of the colon.
Morgagni's hernia congenital retrosternal diaphragmatic hernia, with extrusion of tissue into the thorax through the foramen of Morgagni.
paraesophageal hernia hiatal hernia in which part or almost all of the stomach protrudes through the hiatus into the thorax to the left of the esophagus, with the gastroesophageal junction remaining in place.
Paraesophageal hernia. From Dorland's, 2000.
posterior vaginal hernia downward protrusion of the pouch of Douglas, with its intestinal contents, between the posterior vaginal wall and the rectum; called also enterocele. See illustration.
Posterior vaginal hernia. From McKinney et al., 2000.
reducible hernia one that can be returned by manipulation.
Richter's hernia incarcerated or strangulated hernia in which only a portion of the circumference of the bowel wall is involved.
rolling hernia paraesophageal hernia.
scrotal hernia an inguinal hernia that has passed into the scrotum.
sliding hernia hernia of the cecum (on the right) or the sigmoid colon (on the left) in which the wall of the viscus forms a portion of the hernial sac, the remainder of the sac being formed by the parietal peritoneum.
sliding hiatal hernia the most common type of diaphragmatic hernia; a hiatal hernia in which the upper stomach and the cardioesophageal junction protrude upward into the posterior mediastinum. The protrusion, which may be fixed or intermittent, is partially covered by a peritoneal sac.
Sliding hiatal hernia. From Dorland's, 2000.
slip hernia (slipped hernia) sliding hernia.
strangulated hernia one that is tightly constricted. As any hernia progresses and bulges out through the weak point in its containing wall, the opening in the wall tends to close behind it, forming a narrow neck. If the neck becomes pinched tight enough to cut off the blood supply, the hernia will quickly swell and become strangulated. This is a very dangerous condition that can appear suddenly and requires immediate surgical attention. Unless the blood supply is restored promptly, gangrene can set in and may cause death. If a hernia suddenly grows larger, becomes tense, and will not go back into place, and there is pain and nausea, it is strangulated. Occasionally, especially in the elderly, hernia strangulation may occur without pain or tenderness.
umbilical hernia see umbilical hernia.
vaginal hernia hernia into the vagina; called also colpocele.

hi·a·tal her·ni·a

, hiatus hernia
hernia of a part of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm; classified as sliding (esophagogastric junction above the diaphragm) or paraesophageal (esophagogastric junction below the diaphragm). The latter is associated with an intact phrenoesophageal membrane.

hiatal hernia

n.
A hernia in which part of the stomach protrudes through the esophageal opening of the diaphragm. Also called hiatus hernia.

hiatal hernia

protrusion of a portion of the stomach upward through the diaphragm. The condition occurs in about 40% of the population, and most people display few, if any, symptoms. The major difficulty in symptomatic patients is gastroesophageal reflux, the backflow of the acid contents of the stomach into the esophagus. Diagnosis is made easily on x-ray films and may be an incidental finding of a chest radiogram. Surgical treatment is usually unnecessary, and efforts should be directed to alleviating the discomfort associated with reflux. See also diaphragmatic hernia, gastroesophageal reflux, heartburn.
enlarge picture
Sliding hiatal hernia

hiatal hernia

GI disease A herniation of the GE junction through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity; HH affects up to 1% of the population, more common > age 50, 5% are symptomatic Risk factors Smoking, obesity. See Fundoplication, Nissen repair.
Hiatal hernia  
Sliding hiatal hernia 90% of cases, characterized by axial and craniad displacement of esophagogastric–EG junction, which slides in and out of the chest depending on intrathoracic and intraabdominal pressures; the SHH is ensheathed in its own peritoneal sac Treatment Symptomatic cases are repaired by surgically returning the distal esophagus back to the peritoneal cavity with a valvoplasty
Para-esophageal hiatal hernia Less common and often accompanied by a sliding component; pure hiatal hernias are rare and associated with chronic hemorrhage and gastric volvulus, both indications for surgical repair

hi·a·tal her·ni·a

, hiatus hernia (hī-ā'tăl hĕr'nē-ă, hī-ā'tŭs)
Protrusion of a part of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm.

Hiatal hernia

A condition where part of the stomach extends through the diaphragm into the chest cavity.

hi·a·tal her·ni·a

, hiatus hernia (hī-ā'tăl hĕr'nē-ă, hī-ā'tŭs)
Protrusion of a part of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm.

Patient discussion about hiatal hernia

Q. do you know of a good gastro doctor in staten island ny. I have acid refex so bad cant sleep, or lay flat.. years ago was told I had a hiatus hernia, and would only have fLare ups once in a while, have taken nexium for years, and it worked, but not anymore.. I really need to find a good doctor to test me again.

A. yazmine, if you want, you can try consume daily yogurt with a little apple cider vinegar in it (just add 5ml of ACV in your yogurt). some of gastric problems are believed to be caused by some bacteria. apple cider vinegar will help regulate the normal condition inside your gastric mucosa, so that for the long run it probably can help improve your condition.

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References in periodicals archive ?
5) Increased gastric distention can cause an increase in transient LES relaxations and volume of refluxate, particularly in patients with GERD and hiatal hernias.
Coughing, vomiting, straining, or sudden physical exertion can cause increased pressure in the abdomen resulting in hiatal hernia.
Incidental findings reported during TNE included 3 cases of gastritis, two cases each of hiatal hernia and esophagitis (including Candida esophagitis), 1 case of Barrett esophagus, and 1 inlet patch.
Surgical treatment of para-oesophageal hiatal hernia.
He has a small sliding hiatal hernia (the top part of his stomach moves up and down through his diaphragm).
In the case of a hiatal hernia, a portion of the stomach protrudes through a teardrop-shaped hole in the diaphragm where the esophagus and the stomach join.
An esophagogram showed a normal mucosal profile, marked esophageal dilation (2 to 3 times normal size), a type I hiatal hernia (figure 1, A), poor motility, and spontaneous reflux and pooling of gastric contents into the patulous esophagus when the patient was lying prone (figure 1, B).
A 25-year experience with open primary transthoracic repair of paraesophageal hiatal hernia.
Rochlitz has intertwined 21 chapters to include multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), candida/parasites/chronic viruses, hiatal hernia syndrome/vagus nerve imbalance, hypoglycemia, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, asthma, Alzheimer's, and adrenal and thyroid dysfunction, and their relationship to undiagnosed porphyria.
DENVER -- Hiatal hernia is associated with sharply increased risk of atrial fibrillation, according to a large Mayo Clinic study.
2] endarterectomy and coronary X X artery bypass grafting Combined balloon angioplasty and coronary artery X X bypass grafting Management of concomitant carotid and coronary X X artery disease Collis gastroplasty and Belsey hiatal hernia X repair for recurrent hiatal hernia and gastroesophageal reflux Collis gastroplasty and Belsey hiatal hernia X X repair for routine hiatal hernia and gastroesophageal reflux Diversion and exclusion for esophageal perforation X X Management of esophageal-respiratory fistula X Thoracic outlet syndrome: primary operation X Thoracic outlet syndrome: reoperations X X Operations for Paget-Schroetter syndrome X X * All were done by Drs.
Examination of the esophageal transit revealed an incarcerated gastric hiatal hernia (Figure 3) with gastroesophageal reflux.