Persistence of net heterotrophy
in lakes during nutrient addition and food web manipulations.
1989), so heterotrophy
is likely to be the rule, rather than the exception, in temperate freshwater plankton communities.
Indeed, we speculated in our initial studies of Tomales Bay that the heterotrophy
was supported by marine input of organic matter (Smith et al.
In the laboratory, animals are sustained photoautotrophically for months with no additional input of nutrients via heterotrophy
The effect of light and heterotrophy
on carotenoid concentrations in the Caribbean anemone Aiptasia pallida (Verril).
Coral nutrition involves host heterotrophy
and symbiont autotrophy.
In addition, if zooxanthellae do contribute substantially to the C budget of the host sponge, we hypothesize that this contribution is also influenced by the habitat in which the sponge lives, as the reduced light levels and the reduced zooxanthella concentrations (Hill, 1999) of deeper locations force the host sponges to rely more heavily on heterotrophy
Key words: Dictyostega, Burmanniaceae, root structures, rhizome structures, atbuscular mycorrhiza, myco- heterotrophy
According to Chandler and Anderson (1976), Drosera that were fed prey in a darkened room showed little growth, implying a negligible role for carbon heterotrophy
For the temperate Anthopleura elegantissima, either the photosynthetic contributions are not retained by the anemones (lost as gametes, dissolved and particulate organic carbon), or translocated carbon composes a relatively small portion of the host anemone's diet, with the host deriving most of its nutrition via heterotrophy
hetero] are carbon loss by autotrophy and heterotrophy
For example, these algae may be predisposed to heterotrophy
and low light conditions and able to survive long periods in the dark, and their free-living forms may differ in their growth and morphology.