hereditary sensory neuropathy


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neuropathy

 [noo͡-rop´ah-the]
any of numerous functional disturbances and pathologic changes in the peripheral nervous system. The etiology may be known (e.g., arsenical, diabetic, ischemic, or traumatic neuropathy) or unknown. encephalopathy and myelopathy are corresponding terms relating to involvement of the brain and spinal cord. The term is also used to designate noninflammatory lesions in the peripheral nervous system, in contrast to inflammatory lesions (neuritis). adj., adj neuropath´ic.
alcoholic neuropathy neuropathy due to thiamine deficiency in chronic alcoholism.
Denny-Brown's sensory neuropathy hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy.
diabetic neuropathy a complication of diabetes mellitus consisting of chronic symmetrical sensory polyneuropathy affecting first the nerves of the lower limbs and often affecting autonomic nerves. Pathologically, there is segmental demyelination of the peripheral nerves. An uncommon, acute form is marked by severe pain, weakness, and wasting of proximal and distal muscles, peripheral sensory impairment, and loss of tendon reflexes. With autonomic involvement there may be orthostatic hypotension, nocturnal diarrhea, retention of urine, impotence, and small diameter of the pupils with sluggish reaction to light.
entrapment neuropathy any of a group of neuropathies, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by mechanical pressure on a peripheral nerve.
hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) any of a group of hereditary polyneuropathies involving muscle weakness, atrophy, sensory deficits, and vasomotor changes in the lower limbs. Some diseases in this group have been numbered: types I and II are varieties of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and type III is progressive hypertrophic neuropathy.
hereditary sensory neuropathy hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy.
hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) any of several inherited neuropathies that involve slow ascendance of lesions of the sensory nerves, resulting in pain, distal trophic ulcers, and a variety of autonomic disturbances. Types include hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy and familial dysautonomia.
hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy a dominantly inherited polyneuropathy characterized by signs of radicular sensory loss in both the upper and lower limbs; shooting pains; chronic, indolent, trophic ulceration of the feet; and sometimes deafness. Called also hereditary sensory neuropathy and Denny-Brown's sensory neuropathy or syndrome.
Leber's optic neuropathy a maternally transmitted disorder characterized by bilateral progressive optic atrophy, with onset usually at about the age of twenty. Degeneration of the optic nerve and papillomacular bundle results in progressive loss of central vision that may remit spontaneously. It is much more common in males. Called also Leber's disease and Leber's optic atrophy.
progressive hypertrophic neuropathy a slowly progressive familial disease beginning in early life, marked by hyperplasia of interstitial connective tissue, causing thickening of peripheral nerve trunks and posterior roots, and by sclerosis of the posterior columns of the spinal cord, with atrophy of distal parts of the legs and diminution of tendon reflexes and sensation. Called also Dejerine's disease and Dejerine-Sottas disease.
serum neuropathy a neurologic disorder, usually involving the cervical nerves or brachial plexus, occurring two to eight days after the injection of foreign protein, as in immunization or serotherapy for tetanus, diphtheria, or scarlet fever, and characterized by local pain followed by sensory disturbances and paralysis. Called also serum neuritis.

hereditary sensory neuropathy

Neurology A disorder characterized by chronic pain, skin ulcers due to hypesthesia, dyskinesis, autonomic dysregulation, ↓ pain, touch-pressure, and temperature sense, affecting small nerves with degeneration of large myelinated nerves

neuropathy

a general term denoting functional disturbances and pathological changes in the peripheral nervous system. The etiology may be known (e.g. poidoning by arsenicals, ischemic or traumatic neuropathy) or unknown. Encephalopathy and myelopathy are corresponding terms relating to involvement of the brain and spinal cord, respectively. The term is also used to designate noninflammatory lesions in the peripheral nervous system, in contrast to inflammatory lesions (neuritis).

central peripheral neuropathy
see Boxer progressive axonopathy.
diabetic neuropathy
a chronic symmetrical sensory polyneuropathy associated with diabetes mellitus in humans, which occurs uncommonly in dogs and cats.
entrapment neuropathy
a neuropathy due to mechanical pressure on a peripheral nerve.
giant axonal neuropathy
a familial disease of German shepherd dogs, characterized by ataxia, hypotonia, reduced pain sensation, and loss of reflexes and proprioception in the hindlegs, which develops from a young age. Vomiting, associated with esophageal dilatation, also occurs.
hereditary neuropathy
recorded in Tibetan mastiff as an inherited defect in myelin production. Weakness, loss of reflexes and quadriplegia develop quickly and at an early age.
hereditary sensory neuropathy
an inherited abnormality in which affected dogs have impaired perception of pain in the feet and lower limbs from a young age; causes extensive self-mutilation of toes and footpads. It occurs in German shorthaired pointers, English pointers and English springer spaniels. Called also acral mutilation syndrome.
infiltrative splanchnic neuropathy
see macaw wasting disease.
progressive neuropathy
disease of young Cairn terriers with many similarities to globoid cell leukodystrophy. Affected dogs show quadriparesis, ataxia and head tremors.
retrobulbar neuropathy
trigeminal neuropathy
see mandibular neurapraxia.
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